Table 1

Characteristic of included studies

Sr. No.AuthorCountryStudy designStudy periodFunding
1Bang et al20IndiaRCT36 months (1995–1998)
  • Ford Foundation USA

  • The John D & Catherin T MacArthur Foundation USA

2Ariawan et al8IndonesiaPre–Post trainingNR NR
3Carlo et al17**Argentina, Democratic Republic of Congo, Guatemala, India, Pakistan and ZambiaPre–Post training and RCT42 months
(ENC: Mar 2005 and Feb 2007;
NRP: Jul 2006–Aug 2008)
  • NICHD, Global Network for Women’s and Children’s Health Research

  • Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

4Carlo et al 18Argentina, Democratic Republic of Congo, Guatemala, India, Pakistan and ZambiaPre–Post training and RCT42 months
(ENC: Mar 2005 and Feb 2007;
NRP: Jul 2006–Aug 2008)
  • NICHD, Global Network for Women’s and Children’s Health Research,

  • Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

5Gill et al21ZambiaProspective, cluster randomised and controlled effectiveness study30 months (Jun 2006–Nov 2008)
  • Boston University and The Office of Health and Nutrition of The United State Agency for International Development

  • AAP

  • Unicef

6Zhu et al26ChinaPerspective study, pre–post training (traditional resuscitation vs NRPG)24 months (1993–1995) NR
7Deorari et al24IndiaPre–post training (NR
  • Laerdal Foundation Norway

8Jeffery et al28MacedoniaPre–Post training60 months (1997–2001)
  • International Project Unit, Ministry of Health, Macedonia

  • IDA Credit, World Bank

9Vakrilova et al30BulgeriaPre–Post training (48 months
(2000–2003)
 NR
10O’Hare et al25UgandaPre–Post training (historic group vs NRP pilot)1 month
(Dec 2001–Jan 2002)
  • Child Advocacy International

11Opiyo et al19KenyaPre–Post trainingNR
  • Laerdal Foundation for Acute Medicine

  • Wellcome Trust Senior Research Fellowship Award

12Boo31MalaysiaPre–Post training, prospective observational study100 months
(Sep 1996–Dec 2004)
  • Perinatal Society of Malaysia

13Sorensen et al29TanzaniaProspective study, Pre–Post training14 weeks
(Jul 2008–Nov 2008)
  • Danish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology

14Hole et al32Malawi, AfricaPre–Post training30 months
(Jun 2007–Dec 2009)
  • Stanford University School of Medicines, Medical Scholars Research Program

  • Department of Community Relations at Lucil Packard Children’s Hospital

15Msemo et al22TanzaniaPre–Post training30 months
(2009–2013)
  • AAP

  • Laerdal Foundation for Acute Medicine

16Goudar et al23IndiaPre–Post training (pretraining vs post HBB)12 months
(Oct 2009–Sep 2010)
  • AAP

  • Global Implementation Task Force HBB Program,

  • Laerdal Foundation for Acute Medicine, Stavanger Norway

17Vossius et al77TanzaniaPre–Post training (pretraining vs post HBB)24 months
(Feb 2010–Jan 2012)
  • Laerdal Foundation for Acute Medicine and Municipality of Stavanger Norway

  • Research Department of HLH, Tanzania

18Ashish et al***NepalPre–Post training (pretraining vs post HBB)15 months
(Jul 2012–Sep 2013)
  • Laerdal Foundation for Acute Medicine

  • Swedish Society of Medicine

19Bellad et al27Kenya, India (Belgaum, Nagpur)Pre–Post training (pretraining vs post HBB)24 months
(Nov 2011–Oct 2013)
  • NORAD

  • Laerdal Foundation and NICHD

20Patel et al***India (Nagpur)Pre–Post training (pre-training vs post HBB)24 months
(Nov 2011–Oct 2013)
  • NORAD

  • Laerdal Foundation and NICHD

  • *Data for this study has been taken from Lee et al8.

  • **Data for very low birth weight (<1500 g).

  • ***Unpublished data obtained via personal communication with the author

  • AAP, American Academy of Pediatrics; ENC, essential newborn care; HBB, helping babies breathe; NICHD, National Institute of Child and Human Development; NR, not reported; NRPG, Neonatal Resuscitation Program Guidelines; RCT, randomised control trial.