Probiotic group (n=337) | Placebo group (n=327) | |

Age at assessment, months corrected age, mean (SD) | 30.7 (8.9) n=336 | 30.1 (7.8) n=325 |

Weight at assessment, kg mean (SD) | 12.8 (2.6) n=328 | 12.7 (2.1) n=322 |

Height at assessment, cm mean (SD) | 90.4 (7.6) n=320 | 89.9 (6.4) n=311 |

Head circumference at assessment, cm mean (SD) | 48.8 (1.9) n=319 | 48.9 (2.0) n=312 |

Growth: z-scores, mean (SD) | n=329 | n |

Mean (SD) Weight Height Head circumference | n=329 −0.6(1.3) −0.2(1.3) −1.2(1.3) | n=321 −0.6(1.3) −0.2(1.2) −1.1(1.4) |

Sociodemographic variables | ||

English only spoken at home, n (%) | 231 (82.5) n=280 | 207 (77.2) n=268 |

Two caregivers (nuclear family structure), n (%) | 236 (87.1) n=271 | 220 (87.0) n=253 |

Primary caregiver education, n (%) | ||

<11 years of schooling 11–12 years of schooling Tertiary | 25 (9.3) 111 (41.1) 134 (49.6) n=270 | 31 (12.3) 94 (37.2) 128 (50.6) n=253 |

Primary caregiver employment, n (%) | ||

Full time Part time Unemployed, pension | 183 (67.5) 41 (15.1) 47 (17.3) n=271 | 144 (56.9) 60 (23.7) 49 (19.4) n=253 |

Primary income earner, n (%) | ||

Skilled/professional Semiskilled Unskilled | 141 (52.2) 85 (31.5) 44 (16.3) n=270 | 151 (59.7) 63 (24.9) 39 (15.4) n=253 |

Maternal age, n (%) | ||

>21 years 18–21 years <18 years | 264 (97.4) 7 (2.6) 0 n=271 | 244 (96.4) 8 (3.2) 1 (0.4) n=253 |

SRI score, median (range) | 2.0 (1.0–3.0) n=269 | 2.0 (1.0–4.0) n=252 |

Higher social risk (SRI≥2), n (%) | 152 (56.5) n=269 | 152 (60.3) n=252 |

SRI, Social Risk Index.38