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Urinary tract infections in children: an overview of diagnosis and management
  1. Jonathan Kaufman1,2,3,
  2. Meredith Temple-Smith3,
  3. Lena Sanci3
  1. 1Department of Paediatrics, Western Health, Sunshine Hospital, St Albans, Victoria, Australia
  2. 2Health Services Research Group, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
  3. 3Department of General Practice, Faculty of Medicine Dentistry & Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Dr Jonathan Kaufman; jkaufman{at}


Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common and potentially serious bacterial infection of childhood. History and examination findings can be non-specific, so a urine sample is required to diagnose UTI. Sample collection in young precontinent children can be challenging. Bedside dipstick tests are useful for screening, but urine culture is required for diagnostic confirmation. Antibiotic therapy must be guided by local guidelines due to increasing antibiotic resistance. Duration of therapy and indications for imaging remain controversial topics and guidelines lack consensus. This article presents an overview of paediatric UTI diagnosis and management, with highlights of recent advances and evidence updates.

  • general paediatrics
  • nephrology

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  • Contributors JK drafted the manuscript, which was revised by all authors.

  • Funding JK is supported in part by an Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship and Melbourne Children’s Postgraduate Health Research Scholarship.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement There are no data in this work.

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