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Original research
Neonatal outcomes of very low birthweight infants born to mothers with hyperglycaemia in pregnancy: a retrospective cohort study in Japan
  1. Daisuke Hitaka1,
  2. Naho Morisaki2,
  3. Yayoi Miyazono1,3,
  4. Aurelie Piedvache2,
  5. Motomichi Nagafuji1,
  6. Syusuke Takeuchi1,
  7. Daigo Kajikawa1,
  8. Yu Kanai1,
  9. Makoto Saito1,3,
  10. Hidetoshi Takada1,3
  11. On behalf of the Neonatal Research Network of Japan
  1. 1Department of Pediatrics, University of Tsukuba Hospital, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  2. 2Department of Social Medicine, National Center for Child Health and Development, Setagayaku, Tokyo, Japan
  3. 3Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  1. Correspondence to Dr Daisuke Hitaka; hitaka-tuk{at}umin.ac.jp

Abstract

Objective To examine the mortality and morbidities of very low birthweight (VLBW, <1500 g) infants of mothers with hyperglycaemia in pregnancy.

Design and setting We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the Neonatal Research Network of Japan, a nationwide registry of VLBW infants (2003–2012).

Patients We studied 29 626 infants born at 23 to 32 weeks without major congenital anomalies, of which 682 (2.3%) infants were from pregnancies affected by maternal hyperglycaemia.

Main outcome measures The primary outcome was hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were neonatal morbidities and their anthropometric values. Associations between maternal hyperglycaemia and each outcome were observed for the overall period, and statistical tests for interaction were conducted to assess whether they differed before or after the adoption of the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) guidelines in 2010 for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus.

Results Overall, hospital mortality (4.1% vs 5.2%), composite outcomes of mortality and severe morbidity (54.2% vs 60%), and anthropometric values were not significantly different between infants of mothers with or without hyperglycaemia in pregnancy. However, the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in VLBW infants from mothers with hyperglycaemia was significantly higher than those from mothers without it only before (relative risk (RR) 1.09, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.19) and not after (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.11) the adoption of the IADPSG guidelines.

Conclusion VLBW infants born to mothers with hyperglycaemia in pregnancy do not seem to be at higher risk of mortality and morbidities, except for RDS only before the adoption of the IADPSG guidelines.

  • neonatology
  • epidemiology

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Footnotes

  • Collaborators Institutions enrolled in the study of the Neonatal Research Network, Japan, were as follows: Sapporo City General Hospital, Asahikawa Kosei General Hospital, Engaru-Kosei General Hospital, Kushiro Red Cross Hospital, Obihiro-Kosei General Hospital, Tenshi Hospital, NTT Higashinihon Sapporo Hospital, Nikko Memorial Hospital, Nayoro City General Hospital, Sapporo Medical University, Asahikawa Medical University, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Iwate Medical University, Iwate Prefectural Ofunato Hospital, Iwate Prefectural Kuji Hospital, Iwate Prefectural Ninohe Hospital, Sendai Red Cross Hospital, Akita Red Cross Hospital, Tsuruoka Municipal Shonai Hospital, Yamagata University, Yamagata Prefectural Central Hospital, Fukushima Medical University, Takeda General Hospital, Fukushima National Hospital, Tsukuba University, Tsuchiura Kyodo Hospital, Ibaraki Children’s Hospital, Dokkyo Medical University, Jichi Medical University, Ashikaga Red Cross Hospital, Gunma Children’s Medical Center, Kiryu Kosei General Hospital, Fuji Heavy Industries Health Insurance Society Ota Memorial Hospital, Gunma University, Saitama Children’s Medical Center, Nishisaitama-chuo National Hospital, Saitama Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Kawaguchi Municipal Medical Center, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Asahi General Hospital, Chiba Kaihin Municipal Hospital, Kameda Medical Center, Tokyo Women’s Medical University Yachiyo Medical Center, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Tokyo Metropolitan Children’s Medical Center, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Aiiku Hospital, Nihon University Itabashi Hospital, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo Medical University, Teikyo University, Showa University, Japan Red Cross Medical Center, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo Metropolitan Otsuka Hospital, Toho University, Tokyo Metropolitan Bokuto Hospital, Tokyo Jikei Medical University, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Saint Luku’s International Hospital, Juntendo University, Sanikukai Hospital, Katsushika Red Cross Hospital, Yokohama Rosai Hospital, Yokohama City University Medical Center, St. Marianna University School of Medicine Hospital, Kanagawa Children’s Medical Center, Tokai University, Kitazato University, Odawara Municipal Hospital, Nippon Medical School Musashi Kosugi Hospital, Saiseikai Yokohamashi Tobu Hospital, National Hospital Organization Yokohama Medical Center, Yamanashi Prefectural Central Hospital, Nagano Children’s Hospital, Shinshu University, Iida Municipal Hospital, National Hospital Organization Shinshu Ueda Medical Center, Saku General Hospital, Niigata University, Niigata Prefectural Central Hospital, Niigata Municipal Hospital, Nagaoka Red Cross Hospital, Koseiren Takaoka Hospital, Toyama Prefectural Central Hospital, Toyama University, Ishikawa Medical Center for Maternal and Child Health, Kanazawa Medical University, Kanazawa Medical Center, Fukui Prefectural Hospital, Fukui University, Gifu Prefectural General Medical Center, National Hospital Organization Nagara Medical Center, Takayama Red Cross Hospital, Seirei Hamamatsu Hospital, Shizuoka Saiseikai Hospital, Shizuoka Children’s Hospital, Hamamatsu Medical University, Numazu Municipal Hospital, Yaizu City Hospital, Fujieda Municipal General Hospital, Nagoya Red Cross Daini Hospital, Nagoya University, Nagoya Red Cross Daiichi Hospital, Toyohashi Municipal Hospital, Nagoya City West Medical Center, Anjo kosei Hospital, Tosei General Hospital, Komaki Municipal Hospital, TOYOTA Memorial Hospital, Okazaki Municipal Hospital, Konan Kosei Hospital, National Mie Central Medical Center, Ise Red Cross Hospital, Yokkaichi Municipal Hospital, Otsu Red Cross Hospital, Shiga University of Medical Science Hospital, Nagahama Red Cross Hospital, Uji Tokushukai Hospital, The Japan Baptist Hospital, Kyoto University, Kyoto Red Cross Daiichi Hospital, National Maizuru Medical Center, Fukuchiyama City Hospital, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine Hospital, Kyoto City Hospital, Mitsubishi Kyoto Hospital, Yodogawa Christian Hospital, Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Osaka University, Takatsuki General Hospital, Kansai Medical University, Osaka City General Hospital, Osaka City Sumiyoshi Hospital, Aizenbashi Hospital, Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Kitano Hospital, Saiseikai Suita Hospital, Chifune Hospital, Bellland General Hospital, Rinku General Medical Center, Osaka Red Cross Hospital, Yao Municipal Hospital, Osaka General Medical Center, Osaka City University, Hyogo Prefectural Kobe Children’s Hospital, Kobe University, Kakogawa West City Hospital, Saiseikai Hyogoken Hospital, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Hyogo College of Medicine Hospital, Himeji Red Cross Hospital, Toyooka Public Hospital, Hyogo Prefectural Awaji Medical Center, Nara Medical University, Wakayama Medical University, Tottori Prefectural Central Hospital, Tottori University, Shimane Prefectural Central Hospital, Matsue Red Cross Hospital, Kurashiki Central Hospital, Tsuyama Central Hospital, Kawasaki Medical School Hospital, National Hospital Organization Okayama Medical Center, Okayama Red Cross Hospital, Hiroshima City Hiroshima Citizens Hospital, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima University, Tsuchiya General Hospital, National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, Tokushima University, Tokushima Municipal Hospital, Kagawa University, National Hospital Organization Kagawa Children’s Hospital, Matsuyama Red Cross Hospital, Ehime Prefectural Central Hospital, Kochi Health Science Center, St.Mary’s Hospital, National Kyushu Medical Center, Kurume University, Kitakyushu Municipal Medical Center, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Fukuoka University, Kyushu University, Iizuka Hospital, National Hospital Organization Kokura Medical Center, National Hospital Organization Saga Hospital, National Hospital Organization Nagasaki Medical Center, Kumamoto City Hospital, Kumamoto University, Oita Prefectural Hospital, Almeida Memorial Hospital, Nakatsu Municipal Hospital, Miyazaki University, National Hospital Organization Miyakonojo Medical Center, Kagoshima City Hospital, Imakiire General Hospital, Okinawa Prefectural Nanbu Medical Center & Children’s Medical Center, Okinawa Prefectural Chubu Hospital, Naha City Hospital, Okinawa Red Cross Hospital.

  • Contributors All authors contributed to the following; All authors meet all criteria of ICMJE.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval The Internal Review Board of Tokyo Women’s Medical University UMIN 000006961.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.

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