Background Perinatally infected neonates are surviving into adulthood with an impact on mental and emotional health. Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) are a few of the common disruptive behavioral disorders in childhood, which have been found to have a higher prevalence amongst HIV infected children.
Objectives The objectives of this study were to assess the proportion of ADHD and ODD in adolescents aged 10–19 years living with HIV/AIDS by using SNAP IV 26 Item Teacher and Parent Scale and to find the association between duration of treatment, CD4 count, stage of the disease and socio-demographic details with ADHD and ODD.
Methods 88 adolescents aged 10–19 years living with HIV/AIDS were included in the study. The Swanson, Nolan Pelham (SNAP-IV) scale was administered to the caretakers, and children were assessed for the proportion of ADHD/ODD. Association between those who scored positive on the questionnaire with a duration of treatment, CD4 count, stage of the disease, and socio-demographic variables was done using the chi-square test and unpaired t-test.
Results Our study population included 88 participants, out of whom 9 scored positive in the inattention subset resulting in a proportion of 10.2%. 5 participants had symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity resulting in a proportion of 5.6%, and 1 had combined symptoms with a proportion of 1.1%. 13 scored positive in the opposition/defiant subset resulting in a proportion of 14.7%. All the participants who scored positive for ADHD and ODD were observed to live in care-homes. No statistical significance was found between treatment duration, CD4 count, stage of the disease, socio-demographic variables, and ADHD/ODD.
Conclusions The proportion of ADHD and ODD in this study was found to be comparable to the general population. A holistic approach to improve the long-term health of these youth is needed to ensure that our success in achieving the survival of HIV-infected children from infancy is maintained into adulthood.
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