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PP-099 Febrile seizures in young children
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  1. Eneida Buzi
  1. Health care no. 1

Abstract

Aim Febrile seizures(FS) represent the most common cause of seizure among children between 6 months to 5 years of age. FS occurs in 4% of all children in presence of fever >38 *c and no other identifiable causes. Simple FS last <15 min and occur only once in 24h period. Complex FS last >15 min and recurs within 24h associated with focal features. The risk of subsequent epilepsy is ~2% greater than that of the general population. Recurrence rate is about 35%(1–5 years of age) and about 50%(6 months -1 year of age). Monozygotic twins have a much higher concordance rate. FS occur during bacterial or viral infections and sometimes after certain vaccinations.

Material and Method Diagnosis and cases: tipically seizures are clonic but some manifest as atonic or tonic posturing periods. Laboratory tests are important when FS are associated with vomiting or diarrhea(glc, Na, Ca, Mg, P, kidney and liver function tests are needed. Cranial CT, MRI and EEG are important only in Complex FS to identify the risk of recurrence FS after records of high electrical activity in brain. EEG is first done during the first week of complex FS and than another one after a month. In our clinic we have registered 13 cases during 7 years. Only 4 of them have been hospitalised for more than 5 days.9 others are treated at home. Most of them have occure FS after viral infections(otitis, tonsillitis).

Results Prognosis and treatment: Simple FS requires no specific treatment. Complex FS requires drug therapy starting with IV short-acting benzodiazepine(eg.lorazepam 0.05 to 0.1 mg/kg repeated q 5 min up to 3 doses) or diazepam rectal gel 0.5 mg/kg min 1 and min 20 if IV cannot be given. Fosphenytoin 15–20 mg/kg if seizure persist. If not response than intubation may be necessary. Antipyretics and careful monitoring of circulatory and respiratory status are also part of therapy.

Conclusions Prognosis is excellent in simple FS and complex FS

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