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PP-036 Spectrum of MRI findings of foetal alcohol syndrome disorders
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  1. Saad Sharif1,
  2. Naeha Lakshmanan2,
  3. Farhana Sharif3,
  4. Stephanie Ryan4
  1. 1Beaumont Hospital
  2. 2Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
  3. 3Mullingar regional hospital
  4. 4Childrens Hospital Ireland, Temple Street

Abstract

Aim This research aims to evaluate the literature involving Foetal Alcohol SyndromeDisorders (FASD) and the multifaceted impact of contributing factors, including maternalalcohol use, to abnormal foetal development. It aims to highlight the various findings present on MRI scans to assess structural abnormalities present in the brain.

Material and Method The study encompasses data from existing research articles, systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, and retrospective analyses. It draws from broad literature on FASD and prenatal alcohol exposure, covering diagnostic classifications and features.

Results Prenatal alcohol exposure leads to a spectrum of phenotypes, varying from mild to severe. Various studies detail structural brain abnormalities, including reduced brain size, white matter changes, and altered lobe sizes. The degree of structural brain abnormalities correlates with the extent of alcohol exposure during pregnancy. MRI has become instrumental in diagnosing FASD and revealing structural brain abnormalities in individuals without the associated classic facial features. Preliminary data suggests diffusion tensor imaging can effectively detect microstructural abnormalities in FASD cases. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and functional MRI show promise in identifying metabolic changes and network activity patterns, which could aid in understanding the neurodevelopmental outcomes of prenatal alcohol exposure.

Conclusions This research underscores the need to refine diagnostic criteria for FASD, considering the diverse phenotypic presentations. Imaging should be more widely utilised to diagnose and track the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. While the direct teratogenic effects of ethanol in utero remain unclear, it is essential to consider other contributing risk factors when assessing neurodevelopmental outcomes. Further studies are needed to isolate and understand these risk factors and their combined impact. Ultimately, the research suggests that imaging can play a vital role in diagnosing and comprehending FASD, offering hope for more accurate and comprehensive assessments in the future.

  • Foetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Neurodevelopmental

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