Table 1

Characteristics of included studies

StudyNumber (ultrasound/control)CriteriaBaseline demographics and differencesSettingUltrasound timing and typeLP performer expertisePatient position during LP
Lam et al 26
26 (11/15)
(planned 120)
<12 months, no previous back surgery, no informed consent.Median age: 24 days.ED or paediatric ward.Preprocedural; Sonosite M-turbo (Bothell, Washington, USA) or Zonare (Mountain View, California, USA).All LPs but one by paediatric residents.N/A
Kessler et al 25
79 (39/40)<90 days, stable, no spinal dysraphism.Mean age UALP vs SLP: 30 days versus 25 days.ED.Preprocedural.Resident, PEM fellow, attendng.N/A
Gorn et al 23
43 (21/22) (planned 46)<60 days, no known abnormality of the spine and/or a VP shunt.Median age lower in UALP group 38 days versus 45 days.ED.Preprocedural; Siemens Sonoline G40 (Siemens Corp).N/ALateral decubitus proposed in methods (not available in results).
Neal et al 24
128 (64/64)<6 months, no known abnormality of the spine, English speaking.Median age 29 days; more males and more procedures in sitting position in UALP.ED.Preprocedural; Mindray M7 (Mindray, New Jersey, USA).Students, residents, NP, PEM fellows and PEM attendings.Lateral decubitus and sitting.
  • ED, emergency department; LP, lumbar puncture; N/A, not available; NP, nurse practitioner; PEM, paediatric emergency medicine; UALP, ultrasound-assisted lumbar puncture; VP, ventriculoperitoneal.