Table 1

Characteristics of the total study population, by level of maternal qualification at the birth of child

Maternal education level (Weighted number of observations)Higher degree (n=341), 3.6%Degree (n=1515), 15.1%Diploma (n=990), 9.6%A levels (n=1020), 10.2%GCSE-C (n=3744), 38.0%GCSE-G (n=1099), 11.5%None (n=1193), 12.0%Total (n=9902)χ2 p Value
FCP outcome measure (11 years)
 Yes21.0%24.3%29.2%28.3%33.2%38.4%43.2%32.3% <0.001
Sex
 Female52.0%48.8%47.7%50.7%49.6%50.3%48.5%49.4% 0.876
Ethnicity
 White84.8%91.8%91.6%92.5%93.3%93.6%89.8%92.1% 0.004
 Mixed or other6.3%3.7%3.5%2.9%3.0%2.3%4.7%3.4%
 Asian5.4%2.5%2.1%3.6%2.2%2.4%4.0%2.7%
 Black3.5%2.0%2.7%1.0%1.4%1.6%1.5%1.7%
Gestation
 Premature (<37 weeks)5.7%6.0%6.1%4.8%8.0%6.8%10.5%7.3% 0.003
Baby eats and sleeps regularly (9 months)
 Disagree1.3%1.8%2.2%2.4%2.2%2.3%3.5%2.3% 0.257
Whether baby crying is a problem (9 months)
 Yes5.5%6.0%4.6%6.6%5.3%7.4%10.3%6.3% <0.001
Maternal GI conditions (9 months)
 Yes11.9%9.9%11.3%10.9%9.7%7.8%8.2%9.7% 0.176
Maternal mental health (Kessler scale at 3 years)
 Distressed14.2%9.5%11.8%15.6%20.6%24.4%26.9%18.5% <0.001
Maternal general health (5 years)
 Excellent42.6%43.6%36.9%36.0%28.8%25.3%21.1%31.8% <0.001
 Good45.7%48.4%50.9%51.2%53.9%54.0%55.0%52.3%
 Fair10.0%7.3%10.4%11.4%14.7%16.9%20.8%13.6%
 Poor1.7%0.7%1.8%1.4%2.5%3.8%3.2%2.3%
Self-reported maternal bodily pain (5 years)
 None47.7%50.1%49.2%48.5%47.4%50.0%45.3%48.1% <0.001
 Very mild29.1%24.9%18.3%22.0%20.1%16.8%15.6%20.3%
 Mild14.4%13.0%13.8%12.1%11.6%13.2%12.0%12.4%
 Moderate6.4%10.0%13.8%12.6%13.8%12.1%16.3%12.9%
 Severe or very severe2.4%2.0%4.9%4.8%7.1%7.9%10.7%6.2%
Child SDQ (5 years)
 Normal95.8%97.2%94.1%91.4%90.9%83.3%78.0%90.0% <0.001
 Borderline3.6%1.6%3.3%5.3%5.0%8.2%10.3%5.3%
 Abnormal0.6%1.2%2.6%3.3%4.0%8.5%11.8%4.7%
Child's BMI group (7 years)
 Normal or underweight86.3%85.8%81.1%82.2%79.2%76.8%76.7%80.4% <0.001
 Overweight11.7%11.5%14.7%13.6%14.8%16.3%17.8%14.6%
 Obese2.0%2.7%4.2%4.2%6.0%6.9%5.4%5.0%
Child's portions of fruit consumed per day (5 years)
 None or one9.3%7.9%12.8%13.1%20.2%26.8%35.2%19.0% <0.001
 Two22.5%21.6%21.9%23.8%27.6%32.1%26.0%25.9%
 Three or more68.2%70.5%65.2%63.1%52.2%41.1%38.9%55.1%
  • All figures are percentages adjusted for sampling design. Missing data reasons are detailed in section 4 of the online supplementary material.

  • BMI, body mass index; FCP, frequent complaints of pain; GI, gastrointestinal; SDQ, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.