Table 1

Summary of characteristics and demographics for publications (excluding case reports)

PaperDesignRegimenMean (SD) GAMean (SD) BW (g)Sample SizeEfficacySafety
Alshafei (2017)6 Observational prospectiveP 2.5%, T 5% (3 d)24–3142R
Bolt (1992)7
Quasi-RCT
P 2.5% (1d), T 0.5% (2 d)32.3 (±3.3) weeks1544 (±761)20C
C 0.5% (1d), T 0.5% (2 d)34.6 (±3.6) weeks1831 (±645)19C
Bonthala (2000)8 Non-randomised interventionP 1%, C 0.2% (2 d)29–331340 (±82)11C
Caputo (1982)9
Quasi-RCT
P 2.5%, C 0.5%, T 0.5% (1 d)26–42 weeks880–344010
P 2.5%, C 0.5%, T 0.5% (2 d)26–42 weeks880–344010
Chew (2005)20

RCT

P 2.5%, C 1% (3 d)29.92 (±2.66) weeks13G
P 2.5%, T 1% (3 d)29.23 (±1.59) weeks13G
P 1%, C 0.2% (3 d)29.15 (±2.54) weeks13G
Elibol (1997)17

Quasi-RCT

C 1% (2 d or 2 microd)39.68 (±34.33) days –16C, D
P 10% (2 d or 2 microd)22.83 (±21.39) days18C, D
T 0.5% (2 d or 2 microd)28.78 (±26.89) days19C, D
Isenberg (1985)15

RCT

C 0.25% (2 d)31 (±2) weeks1233 (±390)6G
C 0.5% (2 d)31 (±2) weeks1233 (±390)8G
Saline 0.9%31 (±2) weeks1233 (±390)6
Isenberg (1984 March)18

Non-randomised intervention

C 0.5% (2 d)1198 (±220)10C
C 0.5%, T 0.5% (2 d)1227 (±220)10C
P 1%, C 0.2% (2 d)1273 (±251)10C
Isenberg (1984 July)40


Non-randomised intervention


C 0.5% (2 d)1178 (±208)12C
P 1%, C 0.2% (2 d)1282 (±207)12C
P 2.5%, T 0.5% (2 d)1135 (±282)12C
Saline6C
Jiang (2016)10 Observational retrospectiveP 0.5%, T 0.5% (3 d)1254C, R
Khoo (2000)16
RCT crossover
P 1%, C 0.2% (3 d)26.2 weeks
(test 1)
35.8 weeks
(test 2)
28C
P 2.5%, T 0.5% (3 d)26.2 weeks
(test 1)
36.1 weeks
(test 2)
28C
Laws (1996)11 Observational prospectiveP 2 5% (2d), C 0.5% (4 d)27.1 (±2.4)1003 (±332)56C
Lees (1981)12 Observational prospectiveP 2.5%, T 0.5% (1 d)31 (±3.12)1450 (±464)7C
Luo (2014)21
RCT crossover
P 0.5%, T 0.5% (3 d)26–37 weeks88
P 0.25%, T 0.25% (3 d)26–37 weeks88
Lux (2016)27
RCT
T 0.5% (3 d)30
P 5% (1 d), T 0.5% (2 d)30
Merrit (1981)45
RCT
P 2.5%, T 1% (3 d)32 (±0.5)1569 (±98.7)52C
P 2.5%, T 0.5%, C 0.5% (3 d)30.2 (±0.4)1250.7 (±61.6)30C
Mirmanesh (1992)22 Non-randomised InterventionP 2.5% (3 d)27 (±2)840 (±200)21R
Mitchell (2016)28 RCTP 1%, C 0.2% (3 d)28.5 (±2.8)1148 (±523)25G, R
Mitchell (2011)46 Observational prospectiveP 1%, C 0.2% (3 d)28.24 (±2.62)1161 (±352)50R, C, G, N
Neffendorf (2015)43 Observational retrospectiveP 2.5%, C 0.5% (3 d)29 (no SD)1234 (no SD)138R, C, other
Ogut (1996)26






Non-randomised intervention






P 2.5%, C 0.5%, T 0.5% (1 d)39.4 weeks315010
P 2.5%, T 1% (1 d)39.4 weeks315010
P 2.5%, C 1% (2 d)39.4 weeks315010
C 1%, T 1% (1 d)39.4 weeks315010
P 2.5% (2 d)39.4 weeks315010
C 1% (2 d)39.4 weeks315010
T 1% (2 d)39.4 weeks315010
Saline 0.9%39.4 weeks315010
Phamonvaechavan (2012)23
RCT crossover
P 2.5%, T 0.75% (2d)30.5 weeks1241.921C
P 2.5%, T 0.75% (2 d)30.5 weeks1241.921C
Punyawattanaporn (2009)41
RCT
P 1%, C 0.2% (1 d)30.49 (2.34)1368 (438.99)70R
P 1%, C 0.2% (3 d)30.49 (2.34)1368 (438.99)70R
Rosales (1981)24 Observational prospectiveP 2.5%, T 0.5% (3 d)10C
Rush (2004)25 Observational prospectiveP 2.5%, T 0.5% (3 d)30R, C
Sindel (1986)19

RCT

P 2.5%, T 1% (2 d)28.0 (1.9) weeks1022 (226)10C
P 2.5%, T 0.5% (2 d)28.3 (1.6) weeks1115 (281)10C
P 1%, T 1% (2 d)29.0 (2.4) weeks1110 (317)10C
Vicente (2012)42

RCT

P 1%, C 0.2% (1 d)28.7 (2.6) weeks5
P 1%, C 0.2% (2 d)28.7 (2.6) weeks10
P 1%, C 0.2% (3 d)28.7 (2.6) weeks15
Wheatcroft (1993)1
Non-randomised intervention
P 2.5%, C 0.5%, (2 d)29.8 weeks123826
P 2.5%, C 0.5%, (2 microd)29.8 weeks123826
  • Efficacy was identified if authorsmeasured pupil dilation or successful retinopathy of prematurity eye examinations. Safety was determined if physiological measurements were taken.

  • BW, birth weight;C, cardiovascular;C, cyclopentolate;D, dermal; G, gastrointestinal; GA, gestational age;P, phenylephrine;R, respiratory;RCT, randomised controlled trial;T, tropicamide;d, standard drop;microd, microdrop.