Table 2

Risk of bias within included studies

StudySelection biasPerformance biasDetection biasAttrition biasReporting biasOther biasOverall bias
Random sequence generationAllocation concealmentParticipant and personnel blindingOutcome assessor blindingIncomplete outcome dataSelective outcome reporting
Group research designs
Level II and III studiesBar-Haim et al 27 LowLowHighLowHighLowHighLow
Bleyenheuft et al 25 LowLowHighUnclearHighUnclearUnclearUnclear
Declerck et al 26 LowLowHighUnclearUnclearLowHighUnclear
Grecco et al 28 LowLowHighLowUnclearLowUnclearLow
Ketelaar et al 33 LowUnclearHighLowUnclearUnclearUnclearUnclear
Kumban et al 33 LowLowHighLowHighLowUnclearLow
Swe et al 30 LowLowHighLowLowLowUnclearLow
Capio et al 31 HighHighHighUnclearUnclearUnclearUnclearUnclear
Hemayattalab et al 32 HighUnclearHighUnclearUnclearUnclearUnclearUnclear
Hemayattalab and Rostami34 UnclearHighHighUnclearLowLowUnclearUnclear
Löwing et al 35 HighHighHighHighLowLowHighHigh
IVSorsdahl et al 36 HighHighHighLowHighLowUnclearHigh
Single-subject design
IThorpe and Valvano14 LowUnclearHighHighLowLowUnclearUnclear