Table 2

ROBINS-I overall risk of judgement for non-randomised intervention studies

StudyJudgementCriterion
Bonthala (2000)8The study has some important problems.The study is judged to be at serious risk of bias across the confounding and selection of participants domains, but not at critical risk of bias in any domain.
Isenberg (1984 March)18The study has some important problems.The study is judged to be at serious risk of bias in classification of intervention domain, but not at critical risk of bias in any domain.
Isenberg (1984 July)40The study provides sound evidence for a non-randomised study but cannot be considered comparable to a well-performed randomised trial.The study is judged to be at low or moderate risk of bias for all domains, except for bias due to missing data as there was insufficient information provided.
Mirmanesh (1992)22The study provides sound evidence for a non-randomised study but cannot be considered comparable to a well-performed randomised trial.The study is judged to be at low or moderate risk of bias for most domains; however, there was insufficient information to determine bias in deviation from intervention, missing data and outcome measures.
Ogut (1996)26The study provides sound evidence for a non-randomised study but cannot be considered comparable to a well-performed randomised trial.The study is judged to be at low or moderate risk of bias for most domains; however, there was insufficient information to determine bias in selection of participants, deviation from intended intervention and missing data.
Wheatcroft (1993)1The study provides sound evidence for a non-randomised study but cannot be considered comparable to a well-performed randomised trial because there is a significant lack of information in the methods section of the paper.The study is judged to be at low or moderate risk of bias for most domains; however, there was insufficient information to determine bias in selection of participants, deviation from intended intervention, missing data and the reported results.