Table 1

Clinical presentation of mother and child varicella according to the timing of VZV acquisition during pregnancy (adapted from Sauerbrei A and Wutzler P. J Perinatol 2001;21:5456)

Timing of maternal infection during pregnancyClinical patterns in mother, fetus and newborn
  • Varicella in the 20 first weeks of gestation

  • Congenital varicella in 2% of cases (fatality rate: 30%)

  • Varicella in the third trimester

  • Maternal pneumonia in 10%–20% of cases (fatality rate: 10%)

  • Varicella around delivery

    • ≥5–6 days before

    • ≤4–5 days before to 2 days after

  • Neonatal varicella in 20%–50% of cases

    • Fatality rate 0%

    • Fatality rate 0%–3% when rash starts at 0–4 days of life up to 20% when rash starts at 5–12 days of life

  • Irrespective of timing

    • Maternal varicella

      ­

      ­

    • Maternal zoster

­
  • Risk of intrauterine death or zoster in the newborn (during the first year of life)

  • No risk of severe infection for mother/fetus/neonate