Table 4

Results from mixed linear regression analyses of bone mineral density, skeletal muscle mass, fat component and fat distribution measures in 47 EP/ELBW-born children and their 49 term-born age-matched and gender-matched controls in the Western Norway health region in 1999–2000 that were examined in 2010–2011

Variables, unitsEP/ELBW (n=47)TB (n=49)Model*Difference†P value
Mean95% CIMean95% CI
BMC, g1096(1016 to 1176)1256(1177 to 1334)1−1600.001
2−880.001
3−700.006
BMD, g/cm20.809(0.788 to 0.830)0.863(0.843 to 0.884)1−0.054<0.001
2−0.039<0.001
3−0.0320.001
BMD, z-value−0.07(−0.28 to 0.14)0.43(0.22 to 0.64)1−0.500.001
2−0.330.001
3−0.210.04
BMDth left, z-score−0.07(−0.34 to 0.09)0.44(0.18 to 0.69)1−0.520.004
2−0.380.011
3−0.200.19
BMDth right, z-score−0.12(−0.37 to 0.13)0.38(0.14 to 0.63)1−0.510.004
2−0.390.012
3−0.200.19
BMD spine, z-score−0.06(−0.29 to 0.17)−0.13(−0.35 to 0.10)10.060.70
20.220.10
30.280.054
ALM, kg12.0(11.2 to 12.7)13.4(12.7 to 14.1)1−1.40.001
2−0.90.004
3−0.70.03
ALMI, kg/m25.5(5.3 to 5.7)5.8(5.5 to 5.9)1−0.30.02
2−0.20.03
3−0.20.19
Body fat, %26.0(23.3 to 28.7)26.2(23.5 to 28.8)1−0.20.94
20.00.97
3−1.10.38
Fat mass ratio1.11(1.05 to 1.17)1.25(1.19 to 1.30)1−0.13<0.001
2−0.140.001
3−0.130.001
STR0.78(0.72 to 0.85)0.69(0.63 to 0.76)10.090.04
20.090.04
30.090.049
  • *Comparing the EP/ELBW and TB pairs: model 1: unadjusted; model 2: adjusted for height z-score, weight z-score and parental-reported puberty; model 3: adjusted for height z-score, weight z-score, parental-reported puberty and physical activity.

  • †Estimate of difference between EP/ELBW-born and term-born children.

  • ALM, appendicular lean mass;ALMI, appendicular lean mass index; BMC, bone mineral content;BMD, bone mineral density;BMDth, total hip bone mineral density;EP/ELBW, extremely preterm/extremely low birth weight;STR, subscapular-triceps skinfold ratio;TB, term born; Fat mass ratio, (arms+legs fat mass)/truncal fat mass.