Table 3

Primary and secondary outcomes in NCPAP and nHFOV groups

OutcomesNCPAP (n=34)nHFOV (n=34)P value
Duration of non-invasive support (primary outcome), hours26.5 (15–37.4)20 (15–25.2)0.02*
Failure of intervention (need to intubation and ventilator)4 (11.8%)0 (0%)0.03
Intraventricular haemorrhage, 72 hours after birth
 Normal25 (93)31 (86.7)0.04
 Grade 101 (10)
 Grade 29 (6.9)2 (3.3)
 Grade 300
PDA6 (17.6%)4 (11.8%)0.49
CLD2 (5.9%)5 (14.7%)0.23
NEC3 (8.8%)1 (2.9%)0.30
Pulmonary haemorrhage1 (2.9%)00.31
Age when oral feeding began, hours27.7 (12.4)22.7 (10.6)0.08†
Age when full oral feeding received, hours118.9 (58.5)108.2 (48.9)0.41†
Pneumothorax00/
  • Data are presented as frequency (percentage) for categorical, mean (SD) for normally distributed continuous variables and median (IQR; Q1: first quartile, Q3: third quartile) for non-normally distributed continuous variables.

  • *Resulted from non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test.

  • †Resulted from independent samples t-test and other p values are based on applying χ2 or Fisher’s exact test.

  • CLD, chronic lung disease; NCPAP, nasal continuous positive airway pressure; NEC, necrotising enterocolitis ; PDA, patent ductus arteriosus; nHFOV, nasal high-frequency oscillatory ventilation.