Table 1

Characteristics of enrolled patients

CharacteristicsPaediatric trauma patients without head trauma and without concussion
(trauma controls),
N=47
Paediatric
head trauma patients without concussion
(head trauma controls),
N=34
Paediatric head trauma patients with concussion
(concussion),
N=94
Adult
trauma patients without head trauma and without concussion
(trauma controls),
N=145
Adult
head trauma patients without concussion
(head trauma controls),
N=115
Adult
head trauma patients with concussion
(concussion),
N=277
Mean age (years±SD), range9 (±4)
(0–17)
6 (±5)
(1–16)
9 (±6)
(1–17)
41 (±16)
(18–83)
40 (±16)
(18–79)
39 (±15)
(18–78)
Gender, n (%)
 Male33 (27)23 (19)66 (54)82 (25)68 (21)182 (55)
 Female14 (26)11 (21)28 (53)63 (31)47 (23) 95 (46)
Race, n (%)
Asian0 (0)1 (3)1 (1)2 (1)0 (0)6 (2)
Black19 (40)5 (15)31 (33)41 (28)32 (28)54 (20)
Hispanic7 (15)13 (38)17 (18)39 (27)20 (17)53 (19)
Native American0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)3 (2)0 (0)0 (0)
White19 (40)15 (44)42 (45)57 (39)60 (52)154 (56)
Other2 (4)0 (0)3 (3)3 (2)3 (3)10 (4)
Mechanism of injury, n (%)
Motor vehicle crash3 (6)1 (3)4 (4)94 (65)53 (46)134 (48)
    Motorcycle crash0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)17 (15)29 (11)
Other motorised vehicle0 (0)3 (9)2 (2)0 (0)2 (2)3 (1)
Bicycle struck by vehicle0 (0)2 (6)3 (3)3 (2)7 (6)11 (4)
Fall off bicycle0 (0)1 (3)3 (3)1 (1)0 (0)5 (2)
Pedestrian struck1 (2)1 (3)6 (6)4 (3)3 (3)12 (4)
Fall33 (70)17 (50)42 (45)20 (14)12 (10)58 (21)
Sports injury9 (19)5 (15)23 (25)7 (5)2 (2)1 (<1)
Assault0 (0)0 (0)5 (5)0 (0)6 (5)10 (4)
Other1 (2)4 (12)6 (6)16 (11)13 (11)14 (5)
Loss of consciousness, n (%)
No47 (100)34 (100)34 (36)145 (100)115 (100)55 (20)
Yes0 (0)0 (0)37 (39)0 (0)0 (0)222 (80)
Unknown0 (0)0 (0)23 (24)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
Amnesia, n (%)
No47 (100)34 (100)36 (38)145 (100)115 (100)171 (62)
Yes0 (0)0 (0)17 (18)0 (0)0 (0)105 (20)
Unknown0 (0)0 (0)41 (44)0 (0)0 (0)1 (<1)
Injury Severity Score (n=629)
Median (IQR)4.0 (4.0–10)2.0 (1.0–4.0)4.0 (1.0–7.0)4.0 (1.0–4.0)4.0 (2.0–6.5)5.0 (2.0–8.8)
Means (95% CI)6.0 (3.0 to 9.1)3.3 (2.1 to 4.6)4.5 (3.6 to 5.4)4.2 (3.5 to 4.9)4.6 (4.0 to 5.3)6.1 (5.5 to 6.8)
Admitted to hospital, n (%)12 (26)8 (24)29 (31)42 (29)17 (15)101 (37)
CT head performed, n (%)0 (0)11 (32)74 (79)18 (12)80 (70)267 (96)
Intracranial lesions on CT, n (%)0 (0)0 (0)14 (16)0 (0)0 (0)22 (6)
  • Due to rounding, percentages may not add up to 100.