Table 3

Coefficient estimates and 95% CI from linear regression models relating to contraceptive use and HAZ (n=11 501)

Model 1AModel 1BModel 1CModel 1D
Current contraceptive use************
 No use(Reference)(Reference)(Reference)(Reference)
 Traditional0.12**
(0.04 to 0.20)
0.11**
(0.03 to 0.19)
0.12**
(0.04 to 0.19)
0.12**
(0.04 to 0.19)
 Modern, any duration0.10***
(0.05 to 0.16)
0.10***
(0.05 to 0.16)
N/AN/A
 Modern, <15 monthsN/AN/A0.02
(−0.05 to 0.08)
0.02
(−0.04 to 0.09)
 Modern, ≥15 monthsN/AN/A0.20***
(0.13 to 0.26)
0.21***
(0.15 to 0.28)
Prior contraceptive use*********
 No use(Reference)(Reference)(Reference)
 Traditional0.09*
(0.02 to 0.17)
0.11**
(0.03 to 0.18)
0.11**
(0.04 to 0.19)
 Modern0.10***
(0.04 to 0.15)
0.11***
(0.06 to 0.17)
0.12***
(0.07 to 0.18)
Birth interval***
 No preceding interval(Reference)
 Less than 24 months−0.18***
(−0.26 to −0.10)
 24 months or greater−0.11***
(−0.17 to −0.05)
Birth order−0.04***
(−0.06 to −0.02)
  • Asterisks not associated with estimates reflect the overall p value of the variable. The same prespecified confounding variables were included in all models: age of child, age of mother, wealth index, child sex, area of residence, maternal and partner education attainment, maternal literacy, maternal marital status, region of country, ethnic group, language and presence of diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks. Estimates account for sampling design.

  • *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001.

  • HAZ, height-for-age z-score; N/A, not applicable.