Table 3

Estimated prevalences (%) and 95% CI (%) of selected conditions among refugee children 0–18 years from all regions on entry in reception countries

Prevalence estimates, %95% CIStudies, nParticipants, n
Anaemia and genetic disorders of the red blood cells
 Anaemia13.7(8.7 to 19.7)1414 632
 Haemoglobinopathy3.7(0.2 to 10.5)45400
Infectious diseases
 Hepatitis B2.6(1.6 to 3.7)1619 196
 Hepatitis C0.2(0.0 to 1.2)51415
 HIV0.03(0.00 to 0.25)42165
 Active TB0.2(0.0 to 0.5)10162 100
 LTBI (IGRA)11.3(9.4 to 13.3)43291
 LTBI (Mantoux)19.3(11.0 to 29.3)833 317
 Schistosomiasis9.5(5.6 to 14.4)103292
 Strongyloides10.4(4.8 to 17.7)83793
 Intestinal infections31.0(22.1 to 40.6)1512 723
 Malaria2.58(0.7 to 5.4)62408
Growth, nutrition and micronutrient deficiencies and lead poisoning
 Vitamin B deficiency0.6(0.1 to 1.5)3752
 Vitamin D deficiency44.6(27.7 to 62.2)73715
 Wasting8.8(6.5 to 11.4)159167
 Stunting17.2(9.4 to 26.5)72293
 Overweight10.8(7.6 to 14.3)67838
 Obesity5.7(1.9 to 11.4)48538
 Elevated blood lead level6.1(2.4 to 11.0)85898
Vaccine coverage
 Immunity for rubella72.4(45.3 to 92.9)2256
 Immunity for measles70.2(30.7 to 97.2)2402
 Immunity for hepatitis B63.0(51.1 to 74.2)31802
  • Anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin level below the age-specific and gender-specific cut-points established by the WHO or the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. Haemoglobinopathy included sickle cell disease, sickle cell trait, thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Hepatitis B was defined as HBsAg seropositive. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was defined by the presence of antibodies for hepatitis C. HIV test includes the pre-entry screening on HIV in the USA. Active tuberculosis (TB) was defined as a positive chest X-ray and/or positive sputum. Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) was defined as a positive interferon-ƴ release assay (IGRA) or a Mantoux tuberculin skin test ≥10 mm. Schistosomiasis and strongyloides were defined by the presence of antibodies against schistosomiasis and Strongyloides stercoralis. Intestinal infections: at least one positive stool sample: ova, parasite tests or bacteriology tests. Vitamin D: insufficiency 26–50 mol/L 25-hydroxyvitamin D; deficient 13–25 nmol/L and severely deficient <13 nmol/L. Growth tunting: <5th percentile of body mass index for age, WHO. Stunting: height for age <5th. Lead intoxication is defined as >10 µg/dL.