Table 2

Adjusted and unadjusted regression analysis (n=989)

VariableCategoryn (%)UnadjustedAdjusted*P value†
OR(95% CI)OR(95% CI)
Age group (years)<167 (6.8)0.19(0.06 to 0.62) 0.21 (0.05 to 0.82) 0.03
1–4456 (46.1)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)
5–9274 (27.7)0.62(0.40 to 0.94) 0.43 (0.25 to 0.74) 0.002
10–15192 (19.4)0.34(0.19 to 0.61) 0.20 (0.09 to 0.43) < 0.001
SexMale513 (51.9)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)
Female476 (48.1)1.37(0.96 to 1.96)1.38(0.88 to 2.14)0.16
Ethnicity‡White797 (80.6)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)
Non-white192 (19.4)0.39(0.18 to 0.81) 0.28 (0.11 to 0.74) 0.01
TravelNo850 (86.0)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)
Yes139 (14.0)0.46(0.24 to 0.88)0.64(0.28 to 1.45)0.28
RuralityUrban719 (72.7)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)
Rural270 (27.3)1.21(0.82 to 1.77)0.88(0.52 to 1.48)0.63
IMD quintile1 (least disadvantaged)231 (23.4)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)
2210 (21.2)0.83(0.48 to 1.42)0.64(0.32 to 1.27)0.20
3204 (20.6)1.28(0.77 to 2.12)1.01(0.54 to 1.91)0.97
4170 (17.2)1.10(0.64 to 1.90)1.10(0.54 to 2.26)0.79
5 (most disadvantaged)174 (17.6)0.57(0.30 to 1.06)0.57(0.25 to 1.31)0.18
RegionEast Midlands72 (7.3)0.62(0.24 to 1.59)0.59(0.18 to 1.92)0.39
East of England66 (6.7)1.03(0.44 to 2.42)1.12(0.37 to 3.37)0.84
London108 (10.9)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)
North East76 (7.7)1.19(0.53 to 2.64)0.71(0.26 to 1.97)0.51
North West185 (18.7)1.20(0.63 to 2.31)1.02(0.44 to 2.37)0.97
South East107 (10.8)1.09(0.52 to 2.28)1.31(0.48 to 3.63)0.60
South West127 (12.8)1.48(0.75 to 2.93)1.25(0.50 to 3.13)0.63
West Midlands104 (10.5)0.54(0.23 to 1.29)0.53(0.18 to 1.53)0.24
Yorkshire and Humber144 (14.6)0.62(0.29 to 1.33)0.52(0.20 to 1.34)0.17
stx stx 1 + 2 226 (22.9)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)
stx 1 18 (1.8)1.84(0.21 to 15.84)5.53(0.53 to 57.42)0.15
stx 2 745 (75.3)6.99(3.22 to 15.17) 5.92 (2.49 to 14.10) < 0.001
AntibioticsNo887 (89.7)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)
Yes102 (10.3)8.54(5.48 to 13.30) 8.46 (4.71 to 15.18) < 0.001
DiarrhoeaNo49 (5.0)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)
Yes940 (95.0)8.61(1.18 to 62.89)4.04(0.50 to 32.59)0.19
Bloody diarrhoeaNo440 (44.5)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)
Yes549 (55.5)4.85(3.07 to 8.00) 3.56 (2.04 to 6.24) < 0.001
NauseaNo653 (66.0)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)
Yes336 (34.0)1.52(1.06 to 2.18)1.12(0.67 to 1.86)0.66
VomitingNo549 (55.5)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)
Yes440 (44.5)6.05(3.95 to 9.26) 4.47 (2.62 to 7.63) < 0.001
Abdominal painNo309 (31.2)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)
Yes680 (68.8)1.49(0.99 to 2.25)0.82(0.46 to 1.46)0.50
FeverNo657 (66.4)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)
Yes332 (33.6)1.50(1.05 to 2.16)1.05(0.67 to 1.66)0.82
  • Bold values highlights statistically significant results.

  • *Adjusted for all other covariates in the model.

  • †Statistical significance of the relationship between HUS and each variable tested using χ2 test.

  • ‡Multiply imputed variable.

  • HUS, haemolytic uraemic syndrome; IMD, Index of Multiple Deprivation 2010; stx, Shiga toxin.