Table 3

Efforts to advance CRBAs to health and development

YearEffort
1988Voluntary associations in 12 European countries coalesce producing the Leiden Charter in 1988.
1993The EACH Charter results from their subsequent collaboration as the European Association of Children in Hospital. The Charter describes 10 articles, closely related to the CRC, on the rights of sick children and their families.37
2000The Child-Friendly Healthcare Initiative uses the mandate of the CRC to define child-friendly healthcare by developing and promoting 12 child rights-based Standards applicable in any setting, each with supporting criteria that encompass all aspects of healthcare provision for children. These Standards are accompanied by systematic assessment and quality improvement tools piloted in Uganda, Pakistan, Kosovo, Moldova and the UK. A manual is made available online for health workers and health planners.
2004The Task Force on Health Promotion for Children and Adolescents in Hospitals (HPH-CA) was established in 2004 within the international Health Promoting Hospitals network. HPH-CA publishes the Standards on Health Promotion for Children and Adolescents A Task Force HPH-CA Tool.51
2008Hospital Amigable Initiative developed in Chile, promoting and assessing care against a framework of 12 Child Rights-based Standards in hospitals in Chile and Argentina.
2010The final report on the implementation process of the Self-evaluation Model and Tool on the Respect of Children’s Rights in Hospital is released.
2012Pilots of the model are completed in 17 hospitals in Europe and Australia resulting in the publication of further assessment tools on children’s rights in hospital.53
2015Pilots implemented by WHO lead to the development of a Manual and Tools for the Assessment of Children’s Rights in Primary Health care.54
2017WHO Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health and the Nurturing Care Framework demonstrate the relevance of a CRBA to child health and well-being.
2018WHO Standards for improving the quality of care for children and young adolescents in health facilities include specific Standards relating to the respect, protection and fulfilment of child rights at all times during care.
  • CRBA, child rights-based approach; CRC, UN Convention on the Rights of the Child; EACH, European Association for Children in Hospital.