Table 3

Associations between sleep in early childhood and BITSEA internalising, dysregulation and externalising problems at 24 months

Internalising symptomsDysregulation symptomsExternalising symptoms
βP value95% CI for BβP value95% CI for BβP value95% CI for B
3 months
 Total sleep0.08 0.041 0.13 to 0.00 −0.070.051−0.19 to 0.00−0.020.647−0.11 to 0.07
 Sleep-onset latency0.060.090−0.01 to 0.16 0.15 < 0.001 0.10 to 0.29 0.010.830−0.08 to 0.10
 Number of night waking 0.13 0.001 0.06 to 0.23 0.13 < 0.001 0.12 to 0.38 0.10 0.006 0.05 to 0.29
 Proportion daytime sleep0.030.535−0.01 to 0.020.030.488−0.01 to 0.030.020.699−0.02 to 0.03
 Bedtime−0.040.345−0.16 to 0.060.000.950−0.17 to 0.160.050.246−0.06 to 0.25
 Child’s age at 24 months0.010.8730.00 to 0.000.040.2550.00 to 0.010.000.9930.00 to 0.00
 Sex0.09 0.010 0.49 to − 0.07 −0.040.250−0.52 to 0.14 0.13 0.000 0.27 to 0.88
 Maternal age during pregnancy0.08 0.041 0.05 to 0.00 0.09 0.011 0.09 to − 0.01 −0.050.202−0.06 to 0.01
 Maternal education0.010.835−0.17 to 0.210.020.633−0.23 to 0.37−0.040.301−0.43 to 0.13
 Maternal health−0.010.818−0.29 to 0.230.040.308−0.19 to 0.610.020.635−0.29 to 0.47
 Gestational age−0.010.748−0.10 to 0.07−0.010.683−0.16 to 0.10−0.030.477−0.16 to 0.08
8 months
 Total sleep0.10 0.037 0.23 to − 0.01 0.17 < 0.001 0.52 to − 0.17 −0.030.456−0.23 to 0.11
 Sleep-onset latency0.070.0610.00 to 0.18 0.10 0.006 0.06 to 0.34 0.070.067−0.01 to 0.27
 Number of night waking 0.07 0.049 0.00 to 0.15 0.17 < 0.001 0.17 to 0.41 0.020.534−0.08 to 0.15
 Proportion daytime sleep0.030.575−0.02 to 0.030.050.331−0.02 to 0.050.010.851−0.03 to 0.04
 Bedtime−0.070.142−0.28 to 0.040.13 0.006 0.60 to − 0.10 −0.040.398−0.34 to 0.14
 Child’s age at 24 months−0.020.6400.00 to 0.000.040.3210.00 to 0.01−0.020.624−0.00 to 0.00
 Sex−0.050.181−0.35 to 0.07−0.030.382−0.48 to 0.18 0.16 0.000 0.37 to 1.00
 Maternal age during pregnancy−0.070.051−0.05 to 0.000.11 0.004 0.10 to − 0.02 −0.060.114−0.07 to 0.01
 Maternal education0.010.744−0.16 to 0.230.020.639−0.23 to 0.380.000.991−0.29 to 0.29
 Maternal health−0.040.258−0.40 to 0.110.040.309−0.19 to 0.600.020.597−0.28 to 0.48
 Gestational age−0.020.603−0.10 to 0.06−0.010.678−0.16 to 0.10−0.040.283−0.19 to 0.06
18 months
 Total sleep−0.010.862−0.14 to 0.120.11 0.004 0.50 to − 0.09 0.040.346−0.10 to 0.30
 Sleep-onset latency0.070.073−0.01 to 0.18 0.11 0.002 0.09 to 0.38 0.070.09−0.02 to 0.26
 Number of night waking 0.08 0.019 0.02 to 0.20 0.25 < 0.001 0.36 to 0.64 0.070.0570.00 to 0.26
 Proportion daytime sleep0.040.385−0.01 to 0.040.080.0570.00 to 0.08−0.010.730−0.05 to 0.03
 Bedtime0.010.776−0.15 to 0.20−0.070.102−0.50 to 0.050.010.866−0.24 to 0.29
 Child’s age at 24 months0.000.9450.00 to 0.000.020.5450.00 to 0.01−0.030.453−0.01 to 0.00
 Sex0.09 0.007 0.48 to − 0.08 −0.010.702−0.37 to 0.25 0.133 0.000 0.28 to 0.89
 Maternal age during pregnancy0.11 0.002 0.06 to − 0.01 0.12 0.001 0.11 to − 0.03 −0.0620.086−0.07 to 0.01
 Maternal education0.010.678−0.15 to 0.230.030.339−0.15 to 0.42−0.0090.810−0.31 to 0.24
 Maternal health−0.020.635−0.30 to 0.190.010.791−0.32 to 0.420.0030.927−0.35 to 0.38
 Gestational age−0.020.553−0.10 to 0.06−0.020.498−0.17 to 0.08−0.0100.767−0.14 to 0.10
24 months
 Total sleep−0.030.535−0.19 to 0.100.12 0.002 0.54 to − 0.12 −0.060.191−0.37 to 0.07
 Sleep-onset latency0.060.084−0.01 to 0.14 0.22 < 0.001 0.25 to 0.45 0.10 0.007 0.04 to 0.25
 Number of night waking 0.11 0.002 0.06 to 0.27 0.39 < 0.001 0.83 to 1.12 0.07 0.047 0.01 to 0.31
 Proportion daytime sleep 0.09 0.037 0.00 to 0.05 0.08 0.039 0.00 to 0.07 0.040.336−0.02 to 0.06
 Bedtime0.010.912−0.18 to 0.21−0.070.066−0.53 to 0.020.000.983−0.29 to 0.29
 Child’s age at 24 months−0.010.7840.00 to 0.000.010.7390.00 to 0.00−0.040.229−0.01 to 0.00
 Sex0.07 0.043 0.39 to − 0.01 0.000.931−0.29 to 0.26 0.14 0.000 0.34 to 0.92
 Maternal age during pregnancy0.13 0.000 0.07 to − 0.02 0.11 0.000 0.10 to − 0.03 −0.050.129−0.06 to 0.01
 Maternal education0.030.450−0.11 to 0.240.020.526−0.17 to 0.33−0.020.627−0.33 to 0.12
 Maternal health−0.010.692−0.28 to 0.190.010.760−0.28 to 0.380.020.583−0.25 to 0.45
 Gestational age−0.010.866−0.08 to 0.07−0.030.306−0.17 to 0.050.000.968−0.12 to 0.11
  • Covariates: child’s age at 24 months, sex, maternal age, maternal education, maternal health and gestational age.