Table 4

Multivariable analysis of factors associated with SGA births

VariablesβcoefficientAOR (95% CI)P value
Maternal age
20–34 yearsReference
15–19 years0.161.18 (0.85 to 1.63)0.329
35 and above−0.250.78 (0.48 to 1.28)0.325
Education
Secondary and aboveReference
Illiterate0.551.73 (1.09 to 2.76)0.020
Literate0.111.11 (0.74 to 1.67)0.611
Basic education−0.020.98 (0.75 to 1.30)0.906
Smoking
NoReference
Yes−0.110.90 (0.62 to 1.32)0.586
Anyone in the same house smokes
NoReference
Yes0.161.17 (0.89 to 1.52)0.246
Type of fuel used
CleanReference
Polluted0.411.51 (1.16 to 1.97)0.002
Both clean and polluted0.311.36 (1.05 to 1.77)0.021
Parity
Multipara (>2 births)Reference
Nullipara (never carried a pregnancy)0.141.15 (0.89 to 1.50)0.292
Primipara (1 birth)−0.220.80 (0.62 to 1.04)0.092
Anaemia
NoReference
Yes0.251.29 (0.78 to 2.11)0.321
Deliveries
SingleReference
Multiple1.123.07 (1.46 to 6.46)0.003
Antepartum haemorrhage
NoReference
Yes−0.450.64 (0.15 to 2.75)0.544
ANC visit during pregnancy
 ≥4Reference
<40.161.18 (0.94 to 1.49)0.164
Time for first ANC visit
First trimesterReference
Second trimester0.241.27 (0.99 to 1.63)0.063
Third trimester0.601.82 (1.27 to 2.61)0.001
Delivery preparation
NoReference
Yes0.151.16 (0.81 to 1.68)0.421
Sex of baby
MaleReference
Female0.261.29 (1.08 to 1.56)0.006
  • These variables were adjusted with maternal age, education, ethnicity, smoking, anyone in the same house smokes, type of fuel use for cooking, parity, deliveries, anaemia, antepartum haemorrhage, antenatal care (ANC) visit, time of first ANC visit, delivery preparation and sex of baby.

  • AOR, adjusted OR; SGA, small for gestational age.