Table 3

Long-term clinical, visual, neurological and neurodevelopmental outcomes of 37 survivors of extreme NH by gestational age category

Gestational age <35 weeks
(n=11)
Gestational age ≥35 weeks (n=26)All
(n=37)
General characteristics
Age at testing (months) (median, IQR)62.5 (36.5–93.0)43.8 (34–64.5)51.0 (35–81)
Age <4 years old3 (27.3)13 (50.0)16 (43.2)
Gender (male)4 (36.4)16 (61.5)20 (54.1)
First born8 (72.7)12 (46.2)20 (54.1)
Received exchange transfusion03 (11.5)3 (8.1)
Refugee status7 (63.6)16 (61.5)23 (62.2)
Clinical outcomes
Being unwell*3 (27.3)8/25 (32.0)11/36 (30.6)
Stunting†2 (18.2)13 (50.0)15 (40.5)
Teeth abnormality‡5/10 (50.0)13/26 (50.0)18/36 (50.0)
Visual and neurological outcomes
Visual examination abnormality§1 (9.1)7 (26.9)8 (21.6)
Neurological exam abnormality¶02 (7.7)2 (5.4)
Neurodevelopmental outcomes
Maternal perception of child’s development: mother has worries3 (27.3)3 (11.5)6 (16.2)
General GMDS percentile score, median (IQR)32 (11–42)7 (<1–42)11 (2–42)
Poor development (<10th centile)2 (18.2)14 (53.8)16 (43.2)
Delayed development (10-49th centile)7 (63.6)10 (38.5)17 (46.0)
Normal development (≥50th centile)2 (18.2)2 (7.7)4 (10.8)
Locomotion score, median (IQR)34 (19–59)12 (3–58)19 (5–58)
Personal and social score, median (IQR)23 (8–94)32 (15–64)26 (11–64)
Hearing and language score, median (IQR)12 (6–57)11 (<1–33)11 (<1–33)
Eye and hand coordination score, median (IQR)27 (4–46)14 (4–48)22 (4–46)
Performance score, median (IQR)26 (6–80)3 (<1–19)4 (<1–40)
Practical reasoning score, median (IQR)**18 (2–51)11 (1–43)14 (2–49)
  • Data shown in number and percentage (%).

  • *Being unwell: more than one hospitalisation per year or presence of a chronic disease as reported in the child’s medical booklet.

  • †Stunting: height-for-age z-scores below −2 as calculated with WHO Child Growth Standards (http://www.who.int/childgrowth/en/).

  • ‡Teeth abnormality: judgement of medical staff looking for the presence of black staining or cavities, confirmed by first author through photographic records.

  • §Visual examination abnormality: unconjugated eye movement and Cardiff’s binocular visual contrast and visual acuity lower than the normal values by age categories (instructions manual for the Cardiff Acuity Test).

  • ¶Neurological examination abnormality: judgement of the medical staff after general observation while moving, and evaluating tone, strength and sensibility, coordination, gait and posture, and reflexes.

  • **One child had an adjusted age of <2 years old when tested; therefore, practical reasoning was available for only 10 preterm children.

  • EGA, estimated gestational age; GMDS, Griffiths Mental Development Scale; NH, neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia; SCBU, special care baby unit.