Table 2

Incidence of BVD and presence of potential confounders in TH and control groups

Patient exposureTH group
Control group
p  Value
BVD12 (26)2 (4)0.04
PICU care (n=22) and BVD, n (%)4 (18)*2 (9)*0.7
NICU care (n=25) and BVD, n (%)8 (32)*0 (0)*0.004
NG position abnormal or not documented on first day, n (%)5 (11)15 (32)0.06
NG abnormal and BVD, n (%)2 (14)1 (8)1.00
Opioid used at any point, n (%)40 (85)24 (51)0.0004
Opioid used and BVD, n (%)11 (28)1 (4)0.02
Muscle relaxant used at any time, n (%)11 (23)11 (23)1.00
Muscle relaxant use and BVD, n (%)3 (27)0 (0)0.2
Blood culture (n=45 TH, n=30 control) positive, n (%)3 (7)1 (3)0.5
Blood culture positive and BVD, n (%)0 (0)0 (0)n/a
  • *Comparison of proportion of patients with BVD between unit of care (PICU vs NICU) was not significant in either the TH (p=0.33) or control (p=0.21) groups.

  • BVD, bilious vomiting or drainage; NG, nasogastric; NICU, neonatal intensive care unit; PICU, paediatric intensive care unit; TH, therapeutic hypothermia.