Table 3

AMSTAR2 ratings of included systematic reviews

ReviewAMSTAR2 ratingConfidence in findings of review
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q5Q6Q7Q8Q9Q10Q11Q12Q13Q14Q15Q16
Abiramalatha et al24YNNYYYYYYNNANAYYNAYModerate
Alshaikh et al23YNNYYYNYYNYNNNYYCritically low
Amissah et al25YYNYYYYYYNNANAYYNANModerate
Amissah et al26YYNYYYYYYYNANAYYNAYHigh
Brown et al20YNNYYYYYYNYYYYNYModerate
Oddie et al22YNNYYYYYYNYYYYYYModerate
Premji and Chessell21YPYNYYYYPYYNYYYYNYModerate
Watson and McGuire27YNNYYYYYYNNANAYYNAYModerate
  • AMSTAR2 ratings are as follows.

  • 1. Did the research questions and inclusion criteria for the review include the components of PICO?

  • 2. Did the report of the review contain an explicit statement that the review methods were established prior to the conduct of the review and did the report justify any significant deviations from the protocol?

  • 3. Did the review authors explain their selection of the study designs for inclusion in the review?

  • 4. Did the review authors use a comprehensive literature search strategy?

  • 5. Did the review authors perform study selection in duplicate?

  • 6. Did the review authors perform data extraction in duplicate?

  • 7. Did the review authors provide a list of excluded studies and justify the exclusions?

  • 8. Did the review authors describe the included studies in adequate detail?

  • 9. Did the review authors use a satisfactory technique for assessing the risk of bias (RoB) in individual studies that were included in the review?

  • 10. Did the review authors report on the sources of funding for the studies included in the review?

  • 11. If meta-analysis was performed, did the review authors use appropriate methods for statistical combination of results?

  • 12. If meta-analysis was performed, did the review authors assess the potential impact of RoB in individual studies on the results of the meta-analysis or other evidence synthesis?

  • 13. Did the review authors account for RoB in primary studies when interpreting/discussing the results of the review?

  • 14. Did the review authors provide a satisfactory explanation for, and discussion of, any heterogeneity observed in the results of the review?

  • 15. If they performed quantitative synthesis did the review authors carry out an adequate investigation of publication bias (small study bias) and discuss its likely impact on the results of the review?

  • 16. Did the review authors report any potential sources of conflict of interest, including any funding they received for conducting the review?

  • n, no; NA, not applicable; PICO, Population Intervention Comparison Outcome; PY, partial yes; Y, yes.