Table 3

Training of personnel performing ultrasound examination

Author(s)Study location# of anomalies detected (%)Information about training of personnel performing antenatal ultrasound examinations
Adeleye et al24 Nigeria6/43 (14)Radiologists performed 5% of cases; medical doctors performed 11%; unknown training/status performed 84% of cases
Adeleye and Joel-Medewase25 Nigeria26/146 (17.8)22% of ultrasounds performed by a radiologist; sonographers in rest of the cases were personnel with unknown training; authors noted that prenatal diagnosis was significantly more likely in cases where sonographer was certified radiologist
Akinmoladun et al44 Nigeria15/16 (93.8)A consultant radiologist trained in fetal anomaly scanning performed all the scans (the authors note that this radiologist received extensive training at a renowned centre in the UK)
Idowu and Olawehinmi27 Nigeria23/91 (25.3)Authors noted that low diagnosis ‘may be due to the high prevalence of the test being done by non-specialist (untrained radiologist) in our environment’
Wesonga et al31 Uganda1/41 (2.4)Performed by ultrasound technicians holding a diploma; no further information about diploma
Liao et al50 China28/36 (77.8)Ten certified physicians participated in the study protocol, each of whom has more than 5 years of experience in fetal sonography
Xie et al91 ChinaNot specified2 sonographers—1 with 10 years of experience in obstetric sonography and the other with 22 years of experience
Sanghvi et al56 India65/125 (52)Performed by ‘experienced sonologists’
Ghavami and Abedinzadeh92 IranNot specifiedPerformed by ‘two expert operators’
Pitukkijronnakorn et al64 Thailand144/316 (45.6)All scans were performed by an obstetrician who was trained as a level one ultrasonography; in cases of uncertain abnormal findings, the women were reviewed by a level two obstetrician with repeated scans
Iliescu et al66 Romania74/76 (97.4)Scans performed by obstetricians specialising in prenatal diagnosis (including the anomaly scan and echocardiography) who had held accreditation for the 11–14 weeks assessment for at least 5 years prior to the start of the study period
Dane et al74 Turkey23/24 (95.8)2 operators with approximately 6 years and 2 years of experience in gestational ultrasound scanning
Kutuk et al93 TurkeyNot specifiedAll ultrasound scans performed by ‘two experienced maternal-fetal specialists’
Oztekin et al76 Turkey19/21 (90.5)All scans performed by the same experienced radiologist
North America
Johnson et al42 Jamaica44/57 (77.2)8 OB/GYN residents in training for at least 2 years