Table 2

Demographic and clinical findings of patients with and without snakebite sequelae

No sequelae n=50With sequelae n=24P value
Age, months (range)113 (67.3–130.5)110 (73–130.8)0.87
Male gender34 (68)*18 (75)*0.59
Anatomical site of the bite0.43
 Lower extremities33 (66)14 (58)
 Upper extremities14 (28)10 (41.6)
 Head2 (4)0
 Chest1 (2)0
 Severity of envenoming0.095
 Mild13 (26)3 (12.5)
 Moderate36 (72)18 (75)
 Severe1 (2)3 (12.5)
Time to medical evaluation, hours (range)2.0 (1.0–9.0)2.0 (1.25–5.5)0.76
Time to administration of antivenom, hours (range)2.0 (1.0–15.0)2.0 (1.0–6.0)0.84
Initial signs and symptoms
 Pain37 (74)17 (70.8)0.78
 Local oedema47 (94)24 (100)0.54
 Bleeding14 (28)10 (41.6)0.29
 Bullae formation5 (10)4 (16.7)0.46
 Local necrosis02 (8.3)
Acute complications presented during hospitalisation†
 Infection3 (6)9 (37.5)0.0013
 Serum sickness2 (4)1 (4.2)>0.99
 Compartmental syndrome16 (32)20 (83.3)<0.0001
Need of fasciotomy17 (34)21 (87.5)<0.0001
  • Categorical data are expressed as frequencies (%) and analysed using Fisher or χ2 test.

  • Continuous data are expressed as median (25%–75% interquartile range) and analysed using Mann-Whitney rank test or Student’s t-test.

  • Values in bold indicate significant two-sided p values.

  • *Results are presented as number of patients and percentages (in parentheses).

  • †Acute complications presented during hospitalisation refers to those complications presented during the initial days after snakebite, and not to long-term complications.