Table 1

Non-mainstream treatment use (N-MT) according to surveys

Study author, publication dateSettingNo surveyed (n)AgeSample typeN-MT use, %Treatments surveyed% taking pharmaceutical medication
Stubberfield 199943Australia, Boston Child Development Centre29010.2±5.8Clinical: all referred for ADHD testing64Dietary interventions, chiropractic, optometry, use of coloured glasses, use of any other therapy not specifically listed.69
Bussing 200244USA, N Florida Primary schools8228.2+1.68Population: random selection, school registration records12Chiropractic, homoeopathy, massage, acupuncture, faith healingNot mentioned
Gross-Tsur 200319Israel, Jerusalem Medical Centre12011.0±3.1Clinical: all with ADHD attending an emergency department or neuropediatric clinic28Diet, homoeopathy, acupuncture, biofeedback80
Chan 200345USA, Boston Children’s Hospital114Not mentionedClinical: all referred for ADHD testing54Expressive (eg, sensory integration, occupational therapy, art, music, dance), dietary manipulation, special exercises (eg, yoga, tai chi), relaxation techniques (eg, meditation), prayer, biofeedback, chiropractic, herbal remedies, massage, healer, hypnosis51
Concannon 200546Australia, North Sydney2785–11Population: All primary schools71Elimination diet, fatty acid supplement, vitamins, behavioural optometry, herbal medicine, allergy testing, chiropractic, sound therapy, osteopathy, acupuncture66
Sinha 200520Australia, Melbourne Royal Children’s Hospital7511.1+2.9Clinical: hospital outpatient records, all ADHD diagnoses67.6Naturopathy, herbal therapy, homoeopathy, dietary supplements, modified diet, neurofeedback, aromatherapy, therapeutic massage, reiki/therapeutic touch, special exercise (eg, yoga), behavioural optometry, chiropractic, kinesiology, osteopathy, relaxation tape, meditation, magnetic pillow92
Johnston 200547Canada, British Columbia739.86±2.32Population: Newspaper and community centre ads50Vitamin/naturopathy, diet/supplements, family therapy, neurofeedback81
Cala 201248USA, Texas11710.9±3.1Clinical: 5 Community mental health centres20Herbal medicines (ginkgo biloba, echinacea, and St. John’s wort)13
Huang 201323USA, New Jersey University of Medicine13510.9±3.2Convenience: Patient panel19.5Dietary supplements, sensory integration, facilitated communication, music therapy, candida therapy, gluten casein-free diet, intravenous secretin, kinesiology, behaviour modification, vision therapy98
Kemper 201349USA4837–17Population: 2007 National Health Interview Survey data36.2Biofeedback, hypnosis, guided imagery, meditation, progressive relaxation, qi gong, stress management classes, tai chi, yoga; dietary supplements; chiropractic/osteopathic, massage; homoeopathy, naturopathy, ayurveda, curandero, espiritista, hierbero, yerbera, shaman, botanica, native american healer/medicine man, sobadorNot mentioned
  • ADHD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.