Table 3

Range and median questionnaire scores, Mann-Whitney-U-test coefficients and effect size estimates r for mothers and fathers in the asphyxia group and control group

AsphyxiaControl U z r (95% CI)
MSDMdRangeMSDMdRange
Mothers
 PDS total score8.807.196.000–375.956.554.000–302291.03.14*** 0.23 (0.11 to  0.34)
 PDS re-experiencing3.292.813.000–121.292.090.000–121600.05.58*** 0.40 (0.29, to 0.50)
 PDS avoidance/numbing2.522.861.500–122.072.781.000–162954.01.270.09 (−0.03 to 0.21)
 PDS hyperarousal2.882.952.000–132.592.842.000–143101.50.790.06 (−0.06 to 0.18)
 HADS total score9.385.889.000–2510.835.5510.000–332871.5−1.86−0.14 (−0.25 to –0.02)
 MIBS total score3.383.652.000–132.383.381.000–202508.51.72* 0.13 (0.01 to 0.25)
Fathers
 PDS total score8.8210.617.000–454.625.103.000–20892.01.77* 0.18 (0.01 to  0.34)
 PDS re-experiencing2.933.562.000–150.661.190.000–5612.04.29*** 0.41 (0.26 to  0.54)
 PDS avoidance/numbing2.713.761.000–181.812.591.000–121002.01.390.14 (−0.02 to 0.30)
 PDS hyperarousal3.273.912.000–142.162.182.000–81085.00.760.06 (−0.11 to  0.22)
 HADS total score8.575.747.000–279.105.389.002–321158.0−0.61−0.06 (−0.22 to 0.11)
 MIBS total score2.092.791.000–112.553.051.000–14843.0−0.80−0.08 (−0.26 to 0.09)
  • Embedded Image ; 95% CI=lower and upper level of the 95% CI. The total sample sizes ranged from n=179 to 186 (mothers) and from n=89 to 101 (fathers).

  • *p<0.05.

  • ***p<0.001 (1-tailed).

  • HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; M, mean; Md, median; MIBS, Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale; PDS, Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale; U, Mann Whitney test statistic; z, z test (a positive z-score denotes higher scale scores in the asphyxia group).