Table 1

Typical characteristics of the main types of childhood bullying

TypesTypical characteristicsExamplesReference
Traditional bullyingDirect physical (overt physical aggression or assaults)Pushing, punching and kicking58
Direct verbal (overt verbal attacks that are highly personal)Teasing, taunting or threatening behaviour directed at the victim’s appearance, abilities, family, culture, race or religion
Indirect and emotional (covert behaviour that damages peer relationships, self-esteem or social status)Passing nasty notes, offensive graffiti, defacing or damaging personal property, exclusion, ostracism and shaming
Sexual bullyingSexually bothering another person (may also be referred to as ‘sexual harassment’)Inappropriate and unwanted touching, using sexualised language and pressurising another to act promiscuously59
CyberbullyingAggressive behaviour or emotional manipulation delivered through digital technology, specifically mobile phones, the internet and social mediaSpreading false stories about a victim online, posting digital media featuring a victim online without permission, excluding a victim from participation in an online space60