Table 4

Summary of childhood health consequences of bullying during childhood

Experienced byReference
VictimBullyBully–victim
Physical health outcomes
Unspecified psychosomatic symptomsx24
Feeling tiredx24
Poor appetitex24
Stomach-achex24
Sleeping difficultiesx24
Headachex24
Back painx24
Dizzinessx24
Mental health outcomes
Depressionxx2 5
Anxietyxx2 5 23
Psychotic symptomsx24 28
Self-harmx27
Suicidal ideationxxx5 24–26
Suicidal behaviourxxx24–26
Illicit substance misusex23 24
Alcohol misusexx23 24 29
Smokingxxx29
Panic disorderxx5 24
Lonelinessxx2 29
Low self-esteemx2
Hyperactivityx23
Disturbed personalityxx5 23
Social health outcomes
Isolationx23
Poor school adjustmentx23
Poor social adjustmentx23
Externalising problemsx23
Risky sexual behaviourx24
Weapon carryingxx30
Disconnectedness with parentsx31