Table 2

Management of children with acute bronchiolitis in primary care and at hospital in Oslo, Norway, before and after introduction of new treatment guidelines in 2013

Primary careHospital
200920142017200920142017
n=242n=239n=199n=435n=374n=386
Nebulised racemic epinephrine (n (%))162 (66.9)134 (56.1)32 (16.1)***257 (59.1)50 (13.4)19 (4.9)***
Nebulised saline (n (%))2 (0.8)52 (21.8)107 (53.8)***171 (39.3)278 (74.3)252 (65.3)***
Nebulised salbutamol (n (%))5 (2.1)9 (3.8)4 (2.0)63 (14.5)36 (9.6)25 (6.5)**
Oxygen supplement (n (%))5 (2.1)4 (1.7)4 (2.0)43 (9.9)86 (23.0)75 (19.4)***
Betamethasone (n (%))16 (6.6)13 (5.4)9 (4.5)29 (6.7)16 (4.3)14 (3.6)
Antipyretics (n (%))7 (2.9)20 (8.4)5 (2.5)**27 (6.2)34 (9.1)50 (13.0)***
Chest X-ray (n (%))10 (4.1)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)***135 (31.0)67 (17.9)74 (19.2)***
Referral to hospital (n (%))93 (38.4)107 (44.8)79 (39.7)Not applicable
Hospitalisation days (mean±SD)2.7±3.82.7±3.02.2±2.4
Hospitalised less than 24 hours (n (%))217 (49.9)197 (52.7)237 (61.4)**
Highflow nasal oxygen (n (%))0 (0.0)20 (5.3)38 (9.8)***
CPAP/BPAP (n (%))19 (4.4)27 (7.2)23 (6.0)
Respirator/mechanical ventilation (n (%))Not applicable6 (1.4)7 (1.9)7 (1.8)
Nasogastric tube (n (%))40 (9.2)43 (11.5)56 (14.5)
Microbiological nasopharyngeal testing303 (69.7)278 (74.3)286 (74.1)
Antibiotics in hospital (n (%))8 (1.9)10 (2.7)16 (4.3)
Antibiotics home treatment (n (%))4 (1.7)1 (0.4)1 (0.5)20 (4.6)6 (1.6)11 (2.8)*
Nebulisation home treatment (n (%))Not applicable227 (52.2)231 (61.8)238 (61.7)**
Recontact within 48 hours (n (%))39 (16.1)35 (14.6)32 (16.1)37 (8.5)39 (10.4)50 (13.0)
  • Comparisons were done across all 3 years at each setting: *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.

  • BPAP, Bilevel positive airway pressure; CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure.