Table 2

Studies on physical activity/obesity studies

First author (Journal)Country (ies)Type of studyMain subjectObjectivesAge (n)Lockdown/school closure and time of data collectionOutcome measuresOther factors (inequalities)Summary of results
Zenic N, et al. (Appl Sci)24CroatiaFollow-upPhysical activity (PA)To evaluate the changes in PAL and factors associated with PALsN=823; Mean age=16.5 years‘Social distancing measures’: March 15. T1: October 2019 to March 2020 and T2 April 2020Anthropometrics, physical fitness status, and evaluation of PALs (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents, PAQA) evaluated by an internet applicationUrban vs ruralA decrease in PAL for the total sample (from 2.97 to 2.63, p<0.01) and mainly in urban adolescents (from 3.11 to 2.68, p<0.001). Significant differences between adolescents living in urban and rural environments were observed for baseline-PAL.
Gilic B, et al. (Child (Basel)25Bosnia and HerzegovinaFollow-up pre and during pandemicPALChanges in PAL among adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina and to evaluate sociodemographic and parental/familial factors, which may influence PAL before and during the COVID-19 pandemic and imposed lockdown.N=688 adolescents (322 females), mean age 17 years at the baseline (15–18 years), attending high school.
N=794 baseline F-up=695
Baseline January 6–12
Lockdown March 16
Follow-up April 20–26
The Physical Activity Questionnaire for AdolescentsParental education level, income level, family conflicts50% of adolescents underwent su fficient PAL at baseline, while only 24% of them were achieving suffi cient PAL at the time of follow-up measurement. Paternal level of education was associated to PAL during lockdown (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.19 to 2.01).
Pietrobelli A, et al. (Obesity Spring)18Italy (verona)Longitudinal observational study-OBELIX StudyObesityTo analyse if youths with obesity, when removed from structured school activities and confined to their homes during the COVID-19 pandemic, will display unfavourable trends in lifestyle behaviours.N=41 out of 50. Mean age 13.0±3.1 yearsChildren enrolled between 13 May and 30 July 2019. The interviews were conducted at the baseline visit and again 3 weeks following the mandatory quarantine starting on 10 March 2020.Body weight, height, and waist circumference were measured at the baseline visit; BMI was calculatedGender differencesThe number of meals eaten per day increased by 1.15±1.56 (p<0.001).
Sleep time increased significantly (0.65±1.29 hours/day, p=0.003) and sports time decreased significantly by 2.30±4.60 hours/week (p=0.003). Screen time increased by 4.85±2.40 hours/day (p<0.001).
There was an inverse correlation between change in sports participation and both a change in number of meals/day and in screen time (r=−0.27, borderline significant at p=0.084). The number of meals eaten per day increased significantly more in the males than in females.
  • BMI, body mass index; PAL, physical activity level.