Table 3

Studies on diabetes mellitus

First author (Journal)Country (ies)Type of studyMain subjectObjectivesAge (n)Lockdown /school closure and time of data collectionOutcome measuresOther factors (inequalities)Summary of results
Brener A, et al. (Acta Diabetol)26IsraelFollow-upClinical control of T1DTo assess the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the glycaemic control of paediatric patients with T1D.102 T1DM patients (52.9% males), mean age 11.2 years, mean diabetes duration 4.2yrom 23 February 2020 to 7 March 2020 and during the lockdown from 25 March 2020 to 7 April 2020.Mean glucose level, time-in-range (TIR, 70–180 mg/dL; 3.9–10 mmol/L), hypoglycaemic (<54 mg/dL;<3 mmol/L), hyperglycaemic (>250 mg/dL;>13.3 mmol/L), coefficient of variation, and time CGM active before and during lockdown.Age, sex, households (single/two parents), soicoeconomic position by home address SEP cluster and SEP indexIn the younger age group, a multiple linear regression model revealed associations of age and lower SEP cluster with delta-TIR (F=4.416, p=0.019) and with delta-mean glucose (F=4.459, p=0.018). No significant correlations were found in the adolescent age group.
Christoforidis A, et al. (Diabetes Res Clin Pract)27GreeceFollow-upT1DM controlTo monitor the effect of the lockdown in glycaemic variability, insulin requirements and eating portions and habits in children with T1DM wearing insulin pump equipped with a continuous glucose monitoring system34 out of 250 children with T1DM, mean age=11.3y3 weeks before and 3 weeks after March 10 (starting lockdown and school closure)Control of insulin pump equipped and glucose metabolismA higher CV indicating an increased glucose variability in the pre-lockdown period was observed (39.52% vs 37.40%, p=0.011). No significant difference was recorded regarding the total daily dose of insulin and the reported carbohydrates consumed, however, meal schedule has changed.
Di Dalmazi G, et al. (BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care)28Italy (Orsola Policlinic, Bologna)A cohort of DM-1Clinical control in diabeticsTo investigate continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) metrics in children and adults with T1D during lockdown and to identify their potentially related factors.130 consecutive patients with T1DM (30 children (≤12 years), 24 teenagers (13–17 years),Before the lockdown in Italy, from 20 February to 10 March 2020, and also January 30 to February 19 (pre-lockdown) and 20 days starting from that date, from 11 to 30 March 2020 (during lockdown).Outcome measures: index of glucose control: GMI, LBG index, etcIn children, significantly lower (improvement) glucose SD (SDglu) (p=0.029) and time below range (TBR) <54 mg/dL (TBR2) (p=0.029) were detected after lockdown. CGM metrics were comparable in teenagers before and during lockdown.
  • GMI, glucose management indicator; LBG, low blood glucose index; SEP, socioeconomic position.