Table 2

Copper and zinc concentrations in mature breast milk from mothers with Wilson’s disease who were undergoing treatment for the disease and in healthy control milk

MedicationSubjects (n)Dosage
Sample date after delivery (days)Serum concentrations of copper and zinc in mothers (µg/dL)
mean (minimum–maximum)
Concentrations of copper and zinc in breast milk (µg/dL)
mean±SD (minimum–maximum)
CopperZincCopperP valueZincP value
TE51000–175033–33717 (16–19)N.E.29.6±9 (15–39)1.000153±77 (44–205)0.829
PC6500–80018–17515.8 (6–37)N.E.26±13 (12–47)0.642134±108 (42–311)0.714
Zinc650–15015–11823 (5.0–36)195 (175–215)38±7 (30–48)0.268288±112 (146–423)0.012*
Zinc+TE150 and 1500331617639184
No medication (healthy controls)25N.M.15–315103–15966–11833±25† (6–60)160±120† (29–462)
  • Mean age (minimum–maximum) at diagnosis and delivery of patients were 13 (9–29) years and 31 (23–38) years, respectively.

  • Number of patients with hepatic manifestations and neurological manifestations were 14 and 4, respectively).

  • *P<0.05.

  • †Control data were comparable to those from a previous report.16

  • NE, not examined; NM, no medication; PC, penicillamine; TE, trientine.