Table 2

Copper and zinc concentrations in mature breast milk from mothers with Wilson’s disease who were undergoing treatment for the disease and in healthy control milk

MedicationSubjects (n)Dosage
(mg/day)
Sample date after delivery (days)Serum concentrations of copper and zinc in mothers (µg/dL)
mean (minimum–maximum)
Concentrations of copper and zinc in breast milk (µg/dL)
mean±SD (minimum–maximum)
CopperZincCopperP valueZincP value
TE51000–175033–33717 (16–19)N.E.29.6±9 (15–39)1.000153±77 (44–205)0.829
PC6500–80018–17515.8 (6–37)N.E.26±13 (12–47)0.642134±108 (42–311)0.714
Zinc650–15015–11823 (5.0–36)195 (175–215)38±7 (30–48)0.268288±112 (146–423)0.012*
Zinc+TE150 and 1500331617639184
No medication (healthy controls)25N.M.15–315103–15966–11833±25† (6–60)160±120† (29–462)
  • Mean age (minimum–maximum) at diagnosis and delivery of patients were 13 (9–29) years and 31 (23–38) years, respectively.

  • Number of patients with hepatic manifestations and neurological manifestations were 14 and 4, respectively).

  • *P<0.05.

  • †Control data were comparable to those from a previous report.16

  • NE, not examined; NM, no medication; PC, penicillamine; TE, trientine.