Table 1

Interventions presented in the survey

PositioningEnsuring a child has the best posture to eat and drink food safely and efficiently
ManoeuvresGiving direct physical support to a child when eating or drinking to improve the movements needed to bite, chew and swallow
Oral-motor exercisesExercises done with a child with the aim of improving their control of their mouth, jaw, tongue or lips
MedicationAny prescribed medicine that could affect eating and drinking
Schedule of mealsSetting the timing of mealtimes to encourage a child’s appetite and readiness to eat and drink, and establish a mealtime routine
Food or drink modificationChanging aspects of the child’s food or drink, such as the consistency, temperature, taste, amount or presentation
Modification of utensilsUsing different spoons, forks, plates, cups or bottles
Modification of the environmentChanging the physical or social setting at mealtimes
Sensory aidsFor example, glasses or hearing aids
Energy supplementsAny energy or calorie supplement given orally or via feeding tube
Training to wait for a child’s cues for feedingHelping parents/caregivers to recognise the signs that a child is ready to take another mouthful of food or drink
Pacing of food at mealtimesChanging the speed at which each mouthful of food or drink is taken by a child
Enhancing child/feeder communication strategies at mealtimesImproving interaction between a child and the person feeding them during mealtimes
Modifying social eating and drinking opportunitiesAny change in the physical environment or behaviour of others when children eat or drink in company
Hand-over-hand promptingPhysically guiding the child’s hand to encourage them to grasp or move food/equipment
CounsellingCollaboration between professional and parent to enhance understanding of causes, extent and impacts of eating and drinking difficulties and promote parents’ well-being
Desensitisation programme for food avoidanceActivities aimed at gradually introducing a child to new or previously rejected foods and drinks
Desensitisation programme for oral sensationsActivities aimed at reducing a child’s adverse reactions to different sensory experiences linked to eating and drinking
Sensory stimulationTouch-based stimulation on and around the lips and mouth in an attempt to reduce sensory based eating and drinking difficulties
Sensorimotor therapiesInterventions focusing on both sensation (vision, hearing, smell, taste, touch and proprioception) and motor output for learning new skills
Sharing information on the impact of sensory difficulties on eating and drinking
Sharing information on the impact of movement difficulties on eating and drinking
Strategies/programmes aimed at changing behaviour at mealtimesStrategies to encourage a child to behave appropriately at mealtimes
Visual supportsUse of pictures, a ‘countdown clock’ or social stories to increase a child’s understanding of what happens during mealtimes
ModellingGiving a child the opportunity to learn from others by eating and drinking with them