Table 2

Feeding practices and nutritional intakes in infants born at <34 weeks’ gestational age and cared for in a neonatal unit in Malaysia and one in the UK

Variables, n (%)Malaysian group, n=50UK group, n=50P value
Received any breast milk49 (98)38 (76)0.001
Any breast milk at discharge46 (92)25 (50)<0.001
Exclusively breast milk feeding at discharge26 (52)16 (32)0.043
Received infant formula milk40 (80)47 (94)0.037
Energy proportion (%) from breast milk during admission*66.5 (40–83)15.5 (2–82)0.010
Energy proportion (%) from formula milk during admission†19.2 (2.2–52.3)78.8 (12.7–93.9)<0.001
Day of life at first enteral milk feed*2 (1–3)2 (1–2)0.833
Day of life reaching 120 mL/kg/day feed*4 (4–5)5 (4–5)0.044
Day of life reaching full enteral feed at 150 mL/kg/day*9 (7–12)8 (7–10)0.400
Rate of feeding advancement to full feed*13 (6–16)16 (9–20)0.390
Received breast milk fortifier43 (86)13 (26)<0.001
Day of life at first breast milk fortifier received†11 (8–16)15 (10–20)0.039
Received parenteral nutrition40 (80)19 (38)<0.001
Day of life at first parenteral nutrition*2 (1–2)2 (1–2)0.414
Duration of parenteral nutrition*9 (6–14)6 (5–8)0.031
Energy intake, kcal/kg/day‡
 Weeks 1–4103 (13)100 (11)0.238
 Weeks 5–8110 (18)115 (15)0.363
Cumulative energy deficits/excess†, kcal/kg‡
 Weeks 1–4−191.6 (129.8)−254.5 (152.0)0.028
 Weeks 5–893.2 (237.4)−93.8 (539.3)0.105
Protein intake, g/kg/day‡
 Weeks 1–43.0 (0.5)2.7 (0.6)0.004
 Weeks 5–83.4 (0.73.0 (0.8)0.088
Cumulative protein deficits/excess†, g/kg‡
 Weeks 1–4−11.4 (6.1)−15.4 (8.0)0.006
 Weeks 5–8−8.7 (11.8)−24.5 (25.6)0.005
Protein energy ratio, g/100 kcal/day‡
 Weeks 1–42.82 (0.28)2.61 (0.48)0.008
 Weeks 5–83.03 (0.31)2.57 (0.38)<0.001
Fat intake, g/kg/day‡
 Weeks 1–44.8 (0.7)4.8 (0.6)0.627
 Weeks 5–85.3 (1.0)5.8 (0.7)0.058
Carbohydrate intake, g/kg/day‡
 Weeks 1–411.4 (1.9)10.7 (1.4)0.020
 Weeks 5–811.9 (2.0)12.2 (1.7)0.607
Fluid intake, mL/kg/day‡
 Weeks 1–4137.1 (12.9)138.8 (10.9)0.491
 Weeks 5–8141.4 (22.4)153.9 (13.9)0.024
  • P values for comparisons between the two groups were determined by the Student’s t-test or Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables and by χ2 or Fisher’s exact tests for categorical variables.

  • *Median (IQR).

  • †Negative value indicates deficits.

  • ‡Mean (SD).