Table 5

Results (HRs) of the multivariable Cox proportional hazard models for neonatal, postneonatal and infant mortality in the Farafenni Health and Demographics Surveillance System in the years 2014–2017

0–≤28 days>28–365 days0–365 days
VariableHR (95% CI)pHR (95% CI)pHR (95% CI)p
Age of mother at birth
 <18refref
 18–350.66 (0.26 to 1.69)0.3831.04 (0.44 to 2.49)0.93
 36+0.48 (0.14 to 1.68)0.2500.85 (0.29 to 2.49)0.77
Death of any sibling
 Norefrefref
 Yes2.60 (1.19 to 5.71)0.017*2.26 (1.17 to 4.37)0.0152.78 (1.54 to 5.00)<0.01
Birth order
 First bornrefref
 Second, third or fourth0.47 (0.23 to 0.99)0.0460.70 (0.41 to 1.17)0.17
 Fifth or higher0.82 (0.38 to 1.76)0.6100.71 (0.41 to 1.24)0.23
Singleton/multiple pregnancy
 Singletonrefrefref
 Multiple pregnancy2.07 (0.83 to 5.18)0.1182.39 (1.05 to 5.44)0.0371.96 (1.01 to 3.80)0.05
Season of birth
 Hungry (July to December)refref
 Harvest (January to June)1.83 (1.08 to 3.10)0.0261.55 (1.07 to 2.24)0.02
Place of birth
 Hospitalrefref
 Health centre/clinic1.01 (0.43 to 2.38)0.9781.00 (0.52 to 1.94)0.99
 Someone’s home0.64 (0.28 to 1.46)0.2920.68 (0.37 to 1.23)0.20
Mode of delivery
 Vaginal birthrefref
 Caesarean section2.56 (0.90 to 7.33)0.0801.33 (0.47 to 3.78)0.59
Breast feeding
 Yesrefrefref
 No23.60 (13.73 to 40.56)<0.0013.34 (1.53 to 7.29)0.00310.73 (6.83 to 16.86)<0.01
BCG vaccination in first week
 Yesref
 No3.47 (1.07 to 11.24)0.04
Setting
 Urban and peri-urbanrefref
 Rural3.70 (1.57 to 8.70)0.0034.34 (2.03 to 9.29)<0.01
 Distance to nearest PHC0.96 (0.78 to 1.19)0.7351.18 (1.01 to 1.39)0.0431.33 (1.11 to 1.59)<0.01
Setting×distance to nearest PHC interaction
 Urban and peri-urbanref
 Rural0.70.01
  • Univariate analyses for these variables are presented in tables 1–4. P values<0.05 are bolded.

  • *When we removed the variable 'birth order' from the model instead of ‘spacing to previous sibling’, this variable was no longer statistically significant.

  • †This variable was not statistically significant if we excluded infants who died in the first 7 days.

  • ‡When we removed the variable 'distance to nearest PHC' from the model instead of ‘PHC’, this variable was no longer statistically significant.

  • PHC, public health centre.