Table 3

PD tools reported in the survey

ScaleValidated age rangeNumber of centresHow often assessed first 72 hours after surgery?
Minimal and maximal
Pain assessment
 FLACC (33)2 months–7 years2n.s.
 CRIES (34)0–28 days1n.s.
 COMFORT-B scale (35-37)0–3 years1n.s.
 VAS pain obs0–3 years78 hourly, after bolus
 NRS pain obs0–3 years42–4 hourly, after bolus
 LLanto scale1n.s.
Sedation assessment
 NISS (38)0–18 years28 hourly, after bolus
 COMFORT-B scale (38)0–18 years114–8 hourly, after bolus
 Brussels Sedation Scale (39)Adults1n.s.
 Ashworth scale (40)1n.s.
  • COMFORT-B, COMFORT-behavioural scale; CRIES, Crying, Requires O2 for SaO2 <95%, Increased vital signs (blood pressure and heart rate), Expression, Sleepless; FLACC, Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability; LLANTO SCALE, llanto, actitud, normorrespiración, tono postural y observación (crying, attitude, respiratory pattern, muscle tone and facial); NISS, Nurses’ Interpretation of Sedation Score;  NRS, Numeric Rating Scale pain observation; n.s., not specified; VASobs, Visual Analogue Scale observation.