Table 1

Results of the international survey for type and dose of analgesics in children after cardiac surgery

Neonates 0–28 daysInfants 29 days–2 years
MedicationUse in hospitals (n)dosesUse in hospitals (n)doses
Morphine IV bolus mcg/kg950–200950–500
Morphine IV mcg/kg/h125–401210–60
Piritramide IV bolus mg/kg10.2–1.220.05–0.4
Piritramide IV mg/kg/dayn.a.n.a.11.2
Fentanyl IV bolus mcg/kg11–211–2
Fentanyl IV mcg/kg/h31–631–6
Remifentanil IV bolus mcg/kg1111
Remifentanil IV mcg/kg/min10.1–0.210.1–0.2
Sufentanil IV mcg/kg/h11–211–2
Dexmedotomidine IV bolus mcg/kgn.a.n.a.150
Dexmedetomidine IV mcg/kg/hn.a.n.a.20.5–1.5
Paracetamol IV mg/kg57.577.5–15
Paracetamol PO/PR mg/kg/day545–90745–90
Metamizol IV mg/kg140140
Diclofenac IV/PR mg/kg/dayn.a.n.a.31–3
Ibuprofen PO bolus mg/kgn.a.n.a.25–10
Dexketoprofen IV mg/kg10.5–110.5–1
  • Hospitals represented in the survey: Erasmus MC-Sophia, Rotterdam; LUMC, Leiden; UMC Utrecht; UMC Groningen; Our Lady’s Children’s Hospital, Crumlin; Children’s Hospital Bambino Gesù, Rome; Royal Brompton Hospital, London; Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne; University Hospital, Leuven; University Hospital La Paz, Madrid; Starship Children’s Hospital, Auckland; Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto; German Heart Centre, Munich; and Queen Silvia Hospital Gothenburg, Memorial Hospital – Child Health Centre, Warsaw. PO, per oral; PR, per rectal.