Table 1

PICAR statement: inclusion and exclusion criteria

Population, clinical indication(s), and condition(s)Study population:
  • Include: Children (newborn (>38 weeks gestations) to 18 years of age)

  • Exclude: premature infants and adults

Clinical indications:
  • Include: management of either pain (including postoperative, persistent and prolonged pain), sedation, delirium or iatrogenic withdrawal

  • Exclude: Management specific to medications, chronic and procedural pain of short duration, procedural sedation provided in other care settings (eg, dentistry, radiology, endoscopy) or for short duration

  • Include: children in intensive care

InterventionsAny intervention focusing on the on-going management of either pain, sedation, delirium or iatrogenic withdrawal
Comparator(s), comparison(s) and (key) contentComparator/comparison: Any
Key content:
  • If a broad population is included, the CPG must have separate recommendations for children

  • The CPG can be implemented in the intensive care setting but does not need to be specifically developed for intensive care

  • The CPG must include recommendations on assessment for either pain, sedation, delirium or iatrogenic withdrawal

Attributes of eligible CPGsLanguage: No restrictions
Year of publication: 2010 onward
  • Include: Applicable to paediatric intensive care, can be broad/general

  • Exclude: CPGs developed specifically for other settings: neonatal intensive care units, emergency department, pre-operative/operating room

Developing/publishing organisation:
  • Include: CPGs issued or endorsed by international, national or regional societies/professional organisations, or governments from developed countries

  • Exclude: CPGs that were developed by an individual organisation (eg, hospital) or unit within an organisation

Version: Latest/newest version (preceding versions will be excluded)
Type: CPGs, consensus statements, practice/position recommendations/alerts/statements
Quality score: The AGREE II will be used to assess quality but will not be used as a criterion to determine eligibility for inclusion in this systematic review
Recommendations characteristics and ‘other’ considerationsRecommendations: CPGs must have at least one specific recommendation for assessment for either pain, sedation, delirium or iatrogenic withdrawal (either explicitly highlighted as a recommendation (primary) or noted in the body of the text (secondary—not explicitly identified as a recommendation))
  • AGREE, Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation; CPG, clinical practice guideline; PICAR, population, intervention, comparators, attributes and recommendation.