Table 1

Characteristics and outcomes of infants born at <32 weeks’ gestational age in England and Wales from 2010 to 2017 with and without a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

Infant characteristicsWith PDAWithout PDAP value for difference
n (%)16 440 (28.3)41 668 (71.7)
Females, n (%)7691 (46.8)18 905 (45.4)0.002
Gestational age at birth (weeks), median (IQR)27 (25–28)30 (28–31)<0.001
Birth weight (in g), mean (SD)969 (312)1310 (360)<0.001
Birth weight z-score, mean (SD)−0.15 (0.94)−0.02 (0.98)<0.001
Length of stay (days), median (IQR)80 (56–106)42 (31–59)<0.001
Adverse outcomesWith PDAWithout PDAAdjusted OR (95% CI)*
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, n (%)5467 (33.3)3071 (7.4)2.95 (2.80 to 3.12)†
Necrotising enterocolitis, n (%)1181 (7.2)760 (1.8)1.96 (1.77 to 2.18)†
Late onset sepsis, n (%)10 171 (61.9)9836 (23.6)2.72 (2.61 to 2.85)†
Death before discharge, n (%)1904 (11.6)3477 (8.3)0.30 (0.27 to 0.32)†
  • *Adjusted for sex, gestational age and birth weight z-score <-2SD.

  • † P<0.05 with Bonferroni correction.