Table 2

Characteristics and outcomes of infants born at <28 weeks’ gestational age in England and Wales from 2010 to 2017 with and without a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

Infant characteristicsWith PDAWithout PDAP value for difference
n (%)10 418 (59.5)7083 (40.5)
Females, n (%)4834 (46.4)3243 (45.8)0.423
Gestational age at birth (weeks), median (IQR)25 (24–26)26 (25–27)<0.001
Birth weight (in g), mean (SD)814 (185)854 (204)<0.001
Birth weight z-score, mean (SD)−0.13 (0.85)−0.13 (0.91)0.573
Length of stay (days), median (IQR)94 (74-117)67 (7-87)<0.001
Adverse outcomesWith PDAWithout PDAAdjusted OR (95% CI)*
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, n (%)4324 (41.5)1265 (17.9)3.10 (2.88 to 3.33)†
Necrotising enterocolitis, n (%)977 (9.4)317 (4.5)2.05 (1.79 to 2.33)†
Late onset sepsis, n (%)7549 (72.5)2891 (40.8)3.67 (3.44 to 3.92)†
Death before discharge, n (%)1625 (15.6)2447 (34.5)0.21 (0.19 to 0.23)†
  • *Adjusted for sex, gestational age and birth weight z-score <-2SD.

  • †P<0.05 with Bonferroni correction.