Table 6

Infants born at <28 weeks’ gestational age with a PDA who received treatment vs those who did not in England and Wales from 2010 to 2017

Infant characteristicsNot treatedTreatedP value for difference
n (%)5718 (54.9)4700 (45.1)
Females, n (%)2647 (46.3)2187 (46.5)0.807
Gestational age at birth (weeks), median (IQR)26 (25–27)25 (24–26)<0.001
Birth weight (in g), mean (SD)837 (190)786 (174)<0.001
Birth weight z-score, mean (SD)−0.12 (0.87)−0.13 (0.83)0.544
Length of stay (days), median (IQR)88 (69−110)103 (81−125)<0.001
Adverse outcomesNot treatedTreatedAdjusted OR (95% CI)*
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, n (%)2112 (36.9)2212 (47.1)1.42 (1.31 to 1.54)†
Necrotising enterocolitis, n (%)578 (10.1)399 (8.5)0.72 (0.63 to 0.82)†
Late onset sepsis, n (%)3847 (67.3)3702 (78.8)1.61 (1.47 to 1.76)†
Death before discharge, n (%)974 (17.0)651 (13.9)0.59 (0.53 to 0.66)†
  • *Adjusted for sex, gestation age and birth weight z-score <-2SD.

  • †P<0.05 with Bonferroni correction.

  • PDA, patent ductus arteriosus.