Table 1

Association between hospitalisation characteristics and outcome among children aged 1–59 months with WHO-defined severe pneumonia without HIV, severe malnutrition and/or hypoxaemia in an observational study

CharacteristicSurvived
n=863
Died
n=21
P value
Demographics
Age (months), median (IQR)*9.2 (4.7, 17.3)8.1 (6.5, 12.0)0.74
Sex, n (%)†Females353 (97.5)9 (2.5)1.00
Males510 (97.7)12 (2.3)
Clinical features
Respiratory rate (breaths/min), mean (SD)‡59.6 (12.9)60.3 (13.7)0.82
Fast breathing for age, n (%)†Yes720 (97.6)18 (2.4)1.00
No143 (97.9)3 (2.1)
Pulse rate (beats/min), mean (SD)‡162.2 (20.4)170.0 (30.4)0.09
Pulse rate >180 beats/min, n (%)†Yes113 (95.0)6 (5.0)0.22
No400 (97.6)10 (2.4)
Pulse rate >160 beats/min, n (%)†Yes165 (97.6)4 (2.4)0.20
No184 (99.5)1 (0.5)
Severe chest indrawing, n (%)†Yes760 (97.8)17 (2.2)0.31
No103 (96.3)4 (3.7)
Head nodding, n (%)†Yes180 (95.7)8 (4.3)0.10
No683 (98.1)13 (1.9)
Grunting, n (%)†§Yes102 (91.1)10 (8.9)<0.01
No760 (98.6)11 (1.4)
Stridor when calm, n (%)†Yes12 (85.7)2 (14.3)0.04
No851 (97.8)19 (2.2)
Apnoea, n (%)†Yes6 (85.7)1 (14.3)0.16
No857 (97.7)20 (2.3)
Nasal flaring, n (%)†Yes507 (97.6)12 (2.3)1.00
No356 (97.5)9 (2.5)
Measurements and laboratory results
MUAC (cm), mean (SD)‡14.0 (1.2)13.3 (1.0)<0.01
MUAC 11.5–13.5 cm, n (%)†Yes255 (96.2)10 (3.8)0.09
No608 (98.2)11 (1.8)
Hb (g/L), mean (SD)‡10.0 (2.0)7.8 (3.0)<0.01
Hb <5 g/L, n (%)†Yes24 (88.9)3 (11.1)0.02
No839 (99.6)18 (2.1)
Malaria positive, n (%)¶Yes193 (94.6)11 (5.4)<0.01
No663 (98.5)10 (1.5)
SpO2 (%), median (IQR)*96 (95, 98)96 (94, 98)0.49
SpO293%–100%787 (97.8%)18 (2.2%)0.42
90%–92%76 (96.2%)3 (3.7%)
  • *Wilcoxon rank-sum.

  • †Fisher’s exact test.

  • ‡Two-sample t-test.

  • §One participant missing data.

  • ¶Seven participants were missing test results.

  • Hb, haemoglobin; MUAC, mid-upper arm circumference.