Table 3

Unadjusted and adjusted relative risk for association between WASH parameters and enteric fever

WASH practicesNo enteric fever
N=5836, n (%)
Enteric fever
N=80, n (%)
Unadjusted RR
(95% CI)
P valueAdjusted* RR
(95% CI)
P value
Water
 Improved source of drinking water†5087 (87.2)71 (88.8)1.16 (0.58 to 2.31)0.6741.15 (0.58 to 2.30)0.686
 Adequate water treatment‡1886 (32.2)21 (26.3)0.75 (0.46 to 1.23)0.2610.75 (0.45 to 1.23)0.254
 Safe drinking water§1714 (29.4)19 (23.8)0.75 (0.45 to 1.25)0.2750.75 (0.45 to 1.26)0.273
Sanitation
 Toilet sharing926 (15.9)16 (20.0)1.32 (0.77 to 2.27)0.3171.32 (0.76 to 2.30)0.322
 Safe sanitation¶4901 (84.0)64 (80.0)0.77 (0.44 to 1.32)0.3370.77 (0.44 to 1.33)0.342
Food practices
 Consumption of ice creams once a week or more2247 (37.9)28 (35.0)0.88 (0.56 to 1.39)0.5890.86 (0.55 to 1.36)0.527
 Eating food from outside once a week or more736 (12.4)16 (20.0)1.74 (1.01 to 3.00)0.0441.71 (1.00 to 2.94)0.053
 Consumption of uncooked food once a week or more4063 (68.6)54 (67.5)0.95 (0.60 to 1.51)0.8280.90 (0.56 to 1.43)0.654
 Good food practices**1171 (20.1)17 (21.3)1.07 (0.63 to 1.83)0.6141.08 (0.64 to 1.85)0.613
  • *Adjusted for age, education, family size and typhoid vaccine received.

  • †Improved source of drinking water was defined as use of piped water system or bottled water.

  • ‡Adequate water treatment was defined as treatment of water by boiling, bleach/chlorine or filtration.

  • §Safe drinking water in a household was defined as presence of improved source of drinking water and practice of adequate water treatment.

  • ¶Safe sanitation was defined as improved toilet facility with no sharing of toilets. More than 99% of the study subjects belonged to households with an improved toilet facility.

  • **No consumption of uncooked food, no consumption of food from outside and no consumption of unnamed ice creams once a week or more.

  • RR, risk ratio; WASH, water, sanitation and hygiene.