Table 2

WASH and food practices (N=5916)

WASH parametern (%)
Drinking water-related practices
 Source of drinking water
  Piped water from Municipality4845 (81.9)
  Bottled water605 (10.2)
  Public tap/standpipe226 (3.8)
  Others*240 (0.06)
 Households treating water before consumption1917 (32.4)
 Methods of water treatment (N=1917)
  Filtration†1809 (30.6)
  Boiling92 (1.5)
  Others ‡16 (0.3)
 Improved source of drinking water5158 (87.2)
 Adequate water treatment1907 (32.2)
 Safe drinking water1733 (29.3)
Sanitation practices
 Type of toilet facility used
  Pit latrines4695 (79.3)
  Flush type toilet1220 (20.6)
  Composting toilet1 (0.1)
 Children living in households with shared toilets942 (15.9)
 Child stool disposal practices
  Child used toilet/latrine5046 (85.3)
  Discarded into toilet/drain505 (8.5)
  Others§363 (6.2)
 Safe sanitation4965 (83.9)
Food practices
 Practice of consumption of uncooked food without washing111 (1.9)
 Consuming ice cream (stick ice/unnamed ice creams from street vendors) once a week or more2275 (38.4)
 Eating foods from outside once a week or more752 (12.7)
 Eating uncooked food once a week or more4117 (69.6)
 Good food practices1188 (20.0)
  • *Others included tanker trucks and tube well.

  • †1166 (19.7%) used a candle filter, while 643 (10.9%) used an electric water purifier.

  • ‡Others included straining through cloth and storage.

  • §Others included throwing into a garbage and left in the open.

  • WASH, water, sanitation and hygiene.