Table 2

Characteristics of the study participants stratified by survival outcome in the Orotta National Paediatric Referral Hospital (ONPRH) cART treatment centre, Asmara, Eritrea (2005–2020)

Cohort characteristicsTotal n (%)Attrition n (%)Retention n (%)P value (χ2)
Gender
 Male374 (52.7)104 (27.8)270 (72.2)0.01 (5.5)
 Female336 (47.3)68 (20.2)268 (79.8)
Age on enrolment in years, median (IQR)6 (3–9)6 (3–10)6 (3–9)0.38*
 ≤5274 (38.6)62 (22.6)212 (77.4)0.09 (4.7)
 6–10284 (40)63 (22.2)221 (77.8)
 >10152 (21.4)47 (30.9)105 (69.1)
Enrolment year, median (IQR)0.24*
 2005–2010265 (37.3)111 (23.1)369 (76.9)0.23 (2.9)
 2011–2015289 (40.7)44 (24.4)136 (75.6)
 2016–2020156 (22)17 (34)33 (66)
Residence
 Maekel516 (72.7)115 (22.3)401 (77.7)0.049 (3.8)
 Outside Maekel194 (27.3)57 (29.4)137 (70.6)
Disease stage
 Early191 (26.9)23 (12)168 (88)<0.001 (21)
 Advanced519 (73.1)149 (28.7)370 (71.3)
TB status
 Symptomatic and under treatment16 (2.4)5 (31.2)11 (68.8)0.5 (0.4)
 Not symptomatic625 (97.6)151 (24.2)474 (75.8)
CD4 count, median (IQR)274 (150–442)216 (100–371)287 (163–452)<0.001 *
CD4 percentage, median (IQR)12 (7.4–17)9.9 (6–14.5)12.5 (8.2–19)<0.001*
Haemoglobin in g/L, mean (±SD)118 (±135)107 (±19)122(±152)<0.001†
 Anaemia264 (45.7)72 (27.5)192 (72.5)0.004 (8.4)
 No anaemia313 (54.3)54 (17.3)259 (82.7)
WAZ, median (IQR)−2.6 (−3.6 to −1.7)−3 (−4.3 to −2)−2.5 (−3.5 to −1.6)0.001*
 WAZ ≥−2141 (31.9)27 (19.1)114 (80.9)0.05 (3.5)
 WAZ <−2302 (68.1)83 (27.5)219 (72.5)
HAZ, median (IQR)−2.75 (−3.8 to −1.7)−3.2 (−4 to −1.9)−2.5 (3.7 to −1.5)0.001*
 HAZ ≥−2223 (32.7)42 (18.8)181 (81.2)0.028 (4.8)
 HAZ <−2461 (67.3)122 (26.5)339 (73.5)
BAZ, median (IQR)−1.58 (−2.8 to −0.69)−1.9 (−3.6 to −0.7)−1.5 (−2.6 to −0.6)0.012*
 BAZ ≥−2378 (60.4)76 (20.1)302 (79.9)0.007 (7.3)
 BAZ <−2247 (29.6)73 (29.6)174 (70.4)
cART backbone
 AZT+3TC508 (71.7)101 (19.9)407 (80.1)<0.001 (18.6)
 Other backbones201 (28.3)71 (35.3)130 (64.7)
NNRTI
 Efavirenz (EFV)366 (51.6)91 (24.9)275 (75.1)0.67 (0.1)
 Nevirapin (NVP)340 (48.4)80 (23.5)260 (76.5)
Current cART regimen
 First-line cART633 (89.2)156 (24.6)477 (75.4)0.45 (0.5)
 Second-line cART77 (10.8)16 (20.8)61 (79.2)
Adherence
 Suboptimal adherence91 (12.3)24 (26.4)67 (73.6)0.6 (0.2)
 No record619 (87.2)148 (23.9)471 (76.1)
cART change516 (75)92 (17.8)424 (82.2)<0.001 (50.5)
 No cART change172 (25)77 (44.8)95 (55.2)
 Duration of follow-up in years, median (IQR)8 (4–11)4.5 (1–9)9 (6–11)<0.001*
  • Comparisons of proportions were performed by using the χ2 test, medians by using Mann-Whitney tests and means using independent sample t-test.

  • Other backbones refer to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate+emtricitabine, abacavir+3TC or stavudine+3TC. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin level <11 g/dL for children <5 years old, <11.5 g/dL for children 5–11.9 years old and <12 g/dL for children >12 years old.

  • *Mann-Whitney U test.

  • †Independent sample t-test.

  • AZT+3TC, zidovudine+lamivudine; BAZ, body mass index-for-age z-score; cART, combined antiretroviral therapy; EFV, Efavirenz; HAZ, height-for-age z-score; NNRTI, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; NVP, Nevirapin; TB, tuberculosis; WAZ, weight-for-age z-score.