Table 2

Professional views on consent for 20 neonatal interventions (n=69)

InterventionImplied consentExplicit verbal consentExplicit written consent
Peripheral intravenous cannulation669634.300.0
Peripheral arterial line insertion49711927.511.4
Lumbar puncture1927.5487022.9
Endotracheal intubation58841115.900.0
Central venous catheter insertion (long line)45652333.311.4
Umbilical catheter insertion57831217.400.0
Scalp vein insertion (cannula or long line)3347.8355111.4
Surfactant administration6290710.100.0
Intercostal drain insertion52751521.722.9
Suprapubic aspiration of urine43622637.700.0
Use of nitric oxide54781420.311.4
Blood transfusion2536.228411623.2
Dilutional exchange transfusion1826.135511623.2
Double volume exchange transfusion1115.931452739.1
Pharmacological closure of a patent ductus arteriosus1724.6476857.2
Use of postnatal steroids to facilitate extubation from ventilator in preterm infants913.05275811.6
Urine toxicology to screen for drugs of abuse1826.14261913.0
DNA CGH array or other specific genetic testing11.442612637.7
Therapeutic hypothermia45652130.434.3
Ventricular tap (for posthaemorrhagic hydrocephalus)1927.536521420.3