Table 1

Parental views on consent for 20 neonatal interventions (n=8)

InterventionImplied consentExplicit verbal consentExplicit written consent
Peripheral intravenous cannulation620
Peripheral arterial line insertion350
Lumbar puncture251
Endotracheal intubation530
Central venous catheter insertion (long line)260
Umbilical catheter insertion431
Scalp vein insertion (cannula or long line)251
Surfactant administration611
Intercostal drain insertion530
Suprapubic aspiration of urine251
Use of nitric oxide440
Blood transfusion251
Dilutional exchange transfusion323
Double volume exchange transfusion233
Pharmacological closure of a patent ductus arteriosus341
Use of postnatal steroids to facilitate extubation from ventilator in preterm infants530
Urine toxicology to screen for drugs of abuse710
DNA CGH array or other specific genetic testing341
Therapeutic hypothermia512
Ventricular tap (for posthaemorrhagic hydrocephalus)341